Simeon Conquers York

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It has been some time since Simeon the red-haired gibbon (toffee-coloured, if you please) has had an adventure. After months of self-isolation, Simeon braved the outdoors, travelling 200 miles from London to York, the city of Romans, Vikings and Chocolate. Known for its city walls and magnificent Minster, York is situated on two rivers, the Ouse and the Foss, and was founded in around 71 AD. With so much history, York was the perfect city for Simeon to explore and he would love to tell you all about it.

Day One

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Having left London at precisely 6:06 am, Simeon arrived at Ebor Cottage, York around 10:30 am (he stopped on the way for breakfast, naturally). The cottage gets its name from Eboracum, the name the Roman’s gave the city when they arrived in 71 AD, which possibly means “place of the yew trees”. Before the Roman conquest of Britain, the area was inhabited by a tribe called the Brigantes, a name which translates into contemporary English as “highlanders”. The Brigantes were unhappy about their land being taken by the Romans, who had built a wooden fortress and surrounded it with stone walls, however, it was not until AD 306 that they retaliated.

The Brigantes were temporarily subdued by Roman Emperor Constantius Chlorus (c205-306) and his son Constantine (272-337), however, victory did not come without a price. Constantius Chlorus was fatally wounded in battle and passed away in his headquarters at Eboracum. His son immediately seized power, becoming Emperor on what is now the site of York Minster. Constantine I, also known as Constantine the Great, was the first Christian emperor of Rome and brought Christianity to Western Europe.

It did not take Simeon long to unpack his bags before he was racing off to the city centre. What better way to see the city than on a City Sightseeing bus? The open-topped bus took Simeon on a circular route around the city of York, telling him about all the sites and places to visit. Afterwards, Simeon decided to explore some of the city by himself, walking the remaining Roman walls, visiting the many gates and “bars”. The bars are actually gateways to the city that were built into the walls. The gates, on the other hand, are the streets. The term comes from the Old Norse word “gata”, which means “road” or “path”.

The bus tour began in Exhibition Square in front of York Art Gallery. Here, Simeon resisted the temptation to play in the fountains by the statue of William Etty (1787-1849), a member of the Royal Academy of Arts who was born in York. Next door is a grand building called the King’s Manor, where Charles I (1600-49) set up his headquarters during the English Civil War. On the other side of the road is Bootham Bar, one of the four main entrances to the medieval city and the oldest gateway in York dating back to the 11th century. The other bars are Monk, Walmgate and Micklegate.

Monk Bar was built in the 14th and 15th century and now houses the Richard III Experience. The second storey was added by Richard III (1452-85) in 1484. It features a portcullis, which is no longer used, and a series of holes in the walls from which guards could drop missiles onto attackers. Stone figures have been added to the top of the building to represent men throwing boulders onto their victims below. During its history, Monk Bar has been used as a prison and a police station and boasts two garderobes (medieval toilets).

Walmgate Bar is the most complete of the four bars and dates to around the 12th century, although it has had many additions over the centuries. The arch is the oldest part but the portcullis and gates are from the 15th century. The century before, a Barbican (extended wall) was built in front of the Bar. This meant attackers had to get through two gates before entering the city. Damages from cannonballs can still be seen on some parts of the Bar from the time the city was besieged by Parliamentarians in 1644.

“Off with his head and set it on York gates; so York may overlook the town of York.”
– Queen Mary in Shakespeare’s Henry VI

Micklegate Bar was once the most important of York’s gateways. At three storeys high, it was the place where severed heads of traitors were displayed on pikes and pecked at by crows. Sometimes, rotten heads were left up there for almost a decade. Despite its gruesome history, Micklegate Bar was the traditional entry for royalty, dignitaries and important visitors. They could not enter without permission and this rule is still in place today. If the current monarch wishes to enter the city through Micklegate Bar, they must first receive permission from the Lord Mayor of York.

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Clifford’s Tower

The bus took Simeon past lots of interesting places, some ancient, some old and some new-ish. After William the Conqueror (1028-87) invaded York, he built a wooden castle on a raised mound in 1068. Of course, a wooden structure would not last forever, so 200 years later Henry III (1207-72) replaced it with a stone castle, of which one tower remains today. Simeon got a good view of this structure, known as Clifford’s Tower, which was built between 1244 and 1270.

Clifford’s Tower is usually open to the public, however, due to lockdown restrictions, it was closed when Simeon visited. Luckily, the bus tour was able to tell Simeon a little about it. Known by the locals as the “Eye of York”, the 15-metre high building stands on a conical mound and provides stunning views across the city. It contains two floors, the top which once included a chapel and private apartments, however, it is now mostly roofless. At first glance, the tower may appear to be round, however, it was actually built in a quadrilobate design made up of four round bastions and two turrets.

The bus continued on past the War Memorial Gardens, which are relatively new in comparison to the majority of York. The garden was first opened in 1925 to commemorate those who lost their lives in the Great War. In the centre stands a war memorial designed by Edwin Lutyens (1869-1944) and other memorials have been added since to commemorate the Second World War and the Korean War.

Another garden allegedly contains the grave of Dick Turpin (1705-39): “Richard Palmer alias Richard Turpin, notorious highwayman and horse stealer. Executed at Tyburn, April 7th 1739″. Dick Turpin was an infamous highwayman from Essex who fled to York under the pseudonym John Palmer. After a fight with a local man, his true identity was revealed and he was hung in the Knavesmire, a marshy area outside of the city walls. Many now believe Turpin’s body does not lie under the gravestone in York, however, others have recorded paranormal activity in the area. Simeon decided not to visit the gravestone and peered at it nervously from the bus in case he saw the rumoured ghostly figure on horseback.

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After Simeon’s bus journey came to an end, he was eager to explore some of the sights and immediately rushed up the steps at Botham Bar to walk along the Roman walls. Walking where the Romans once trod, Simeon came across some of the places he saw from the bus plus several other places.

The walls do not encircle the whole of York because the River Foss and the boggy land made some areas impenetrable. At the beginning of the 14th century, however, a bridge known as Layerthorpe Bridge was built across the river to increase trade. Those who crossed the bridge were required to pay a toll. It was eventually demolished and replaced in 1996 by two bridges that are used today.

The area surrounding the location of Layerthorpe Bridge has become known as Jewbury due to a Jewish cemetery that once stood there. In the 12th century, York had the largest Jewish community in England, however, in 1190 many of the Jews were forced to take their own lives at Clifford’s Tower. Later, in 1290, the remaining Jews were expelled from England by Edward I (1239-1307).

Later, Simeon came across Fishergate while walking along the wall. Whilst it was not one of the original bars, the gateway was added in medieval times. Inscribed above the central arch is the commemoration of the knighthood bestowed by Henry VII (1457-1509) in 1487 upon William Todd, the Lord Mayor of York. The tower above the gateway was used as a place to imprison Roman Catholics during the reigns of Elizabeth I (1533-1603) and James I (1566-1625). It was also briefly used as a place to incarcerate the mentally ill.

By this point in Simeon’s journey, he was feeling rather worn out and decided not to walk the remaining parts of the wall. This may also have been because he had spied The Postern Gate, a pub built next to the Fishergate Postern medieval tower!

Day Two

More exploring was on the cards for Simeon, this time with the help of a York Minster Area Trail put together by Treasure Trails. The trail contained 19 clues that led Simeon around York, solving hints to work out who murdered the (fictional) novice campanologist, Terry Bell. Along the way, Simeon learnt even more about the City of York.

The York Minster Area Trail began beside a Roman column that once stood in the great hall of an ancient fortress. When the building was destroyed, the column was buried, which preserved it until 1969 when it was eventually found. The trail then led Simeon to Dean’s Park where he met Gerald the Minster Cat along the way. Gerald suggested Simeon look for clues in small places, so he did, including inside a post box! Gerald warned Simeon not to appear suspicious because York Minster has its own police force. Gerald also told Simeon the Minster’s full name is the Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of St. Peter in York.

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As Simeon rapidly crossed off his list of suspects, he ventured down many interestingly named streets: Chapter House Street, St. Saviourgate, Swinegate and Coffee Yard to name a few. Simeon’s favourite street, however, was Whip-Ma-Whop-Ma-Gate. Ironically, this is the name of the shortest street in York and only contains three buildings: 1, 1a and 1 1/2. It was first recorded in 1505 as Whitnourwhatnourgate, meaning “Neither whit nor what street” or “Neither one thing nor the other”. The locals, however, claim it means “What a street!”

Simeon’s second favourite street is actually the most famous in York. The Shambles, which has been taken over by Harry Potter shops, is a very narrow street that gets its name from the Anglo-Saxon Fleshammels, meaning “flesh-shelves”, due to the number of butchers that once traded there. Some of the shops still have the hooks or “shammels” upon which meat was displayed.

Despite being the best-preserved medieval street in England, literature and film fans have likened the street to Diagon Alley in the Harry Potter stories by J. K. Rowling (b.1965). Some claim the street was actually the inspiration for the fictional alley, however, the author denies this and states she has never visited The Shambles. Nonetheless, Harry Potter fans have moved in, opening shops such as The Shop That Must Not Be Named, World of Wizardry, The Boy Wizard and The Potions Cauldron. Fortunately, the street still contains a few of the more traditional shops selling clothes, sweets, fudge, accessories and gifts.

Partway down The Shambles is a shrine dedicated to Saint Margaret Clitherow. Also known as “the pearl of York”, Margaret Clitherow (1556-85) was a butcher’s wife who converted to Catholicism in 1574 at a time when it was banned in England. Despite being fined and imprisoned multiple times by the Church of England for not attending Sunday services, Clitherow maintained her Catholic faith, celebrating mass in a rented house. She allegedly helped to hide some of the priests who were being persecuted, for which she was arrested in 1585. Refusing to plead neither guilty nor innocent, Clitherow was tortured then executed on Good Friday by being crushed to death by a door. This was a form of peine forte et dure (hard and forceful punishment) given to those who refused to plead in which the defendant was slowly crushed by a gradual accumulation of heavy stones or weights upon their body.

Margaret Clitherow was one of a few notable names Simeon came across while searching for the murderer of (fictional) Terry Bell. While walking down Stonegate, Simeon came across the house in which the infamous Guido “Guy” Fawkes (1570-1606) was born. His date of birth is not known, however, records reveal Fawkes was baptised on 13th April 1570 at St Michael le Belfry church in York. He attended St Peter’s School but left the city when he was 21 to fight in the Catholic Spanish army. When he returned to England he went straight to London to help plot the murder of James I. As the majority know, Fawkes was caught with several barrels of gunpowder in the cellar under parliament, after which he was arrested and hung, drawn and quartered.

Other names that cropped up during Simeon’s search of the city included George Hudson (1800-71) the Lord Mayor of York known as the “Railway King” for bringing the railway to York, and Yorkshireman Miles Coverdale (1488-1569), later the Bishop of Exeter, who published the first complete printed English Bible in 1535. Simeon found the location of the first Wesleyan Methodist Chapel in York where John Wesley (1703-91) conducted the opening service on Sunday 15th July 1759.

After two hours of deciphering clues, Simeon had solved the murder mystery. As a reward, he treated himself to a Yorkshire pudding at newly opened restaurant Forest.

Day Three

Simeon was not overly impressed with the downpour he woke up to but at least the York Minster, which he intended to visit would have a roof. York Minster, however, had not always been the stable building that it is now. Foundations under the building, which can be seen in the undercroft, date from around AD71 and once belonged to a Roman Fortress, which was later destroyed. It was some time before Christianity arrived in York and the first known Church on or near the site was a wooden structure erected around AD627 and was the location of the baptism of King Edwin (586-633) when he converted to Christianity. The wooden building was soon replaced with a stone version, where King Edwin was buried in AD633, however, it was destroyed by William the Conqueror’s forces in 1069.

Despite having destroyed the first stone church, William the Conqueror gave the Archbishop of York, Thomas of Bayeux (d.1100), permission to build a new church on the Roman foundations. Over the following 250 years, the church was added to by various kings and archbishops, which explains the differences in architectural styles. The original tower collapsed in 1407 and a stronger one built, therefore, the Minster was not consecrated until 3rd July 1472. Future disasters destroyed parts of the Minster, such as fires in 1829 and 1840, and subsidence in 1967, however, rescue missions have saved the Minster, which still stands in all its beauty.

“The Minster is a symphony in stone.”
– John David, Master Mason

As Simeon entered the Minster, his breath was taken away by the enormity of the Gothic Nave. Staring up at the ceiling, Simeon spotted the seven key ceiling bosses that the Victorians recreated after the loss of the original ceiling. Each boss illustrates an event in the life of Christ and the Virgin Mary. Simeon was a little disconcerted by the golden dragon head that peers down into the Nave. No one knows its true purpose but some suggest it may have been used to lift up a heavy font lid.

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The Nave can fit up to 1,500 people, however, on Simeon’s visit, only a few people were allowed to enter at a time. The lack of crowds made it easier for Simeon to study the building carefully, which is when he discovered a series of headless statues on either side of the west entrance. “What a strange sight,” thought Simeon. “Their heads have fallen off.” Their heads, however, had not fallen off, they had been purposefully made without them.

During the Reformation, the Minster was purged of any traces of Roman Catholicism, which resulted in the decapitation of several statues. To symbolise this event, twelve headless statues were created in 2005 by Terry Hammill (b.1941) and are known as the “Semaphore Saints”. Each statue signs a different letter and when placed together, they read “Christ is here”.

Due to repair works, Simeon could not enter the northern sections of the Minster, nor could he see the great organ and its 5,403 pipes, which were hidden by scaffolding. Social distancing prevented Simeon from climbing the tall tower, however, he did not mind too much because he was so busy marvelling at the many stained glass windows. In the Nave, Simeon enjoyed studying the Tree of Jesse Window, which shows the genealogy of Jesus. Simeon’s favourite window, however, was in the Lady Chapel.

Source: Smithsonian Magazine

Great East Window

The Great East Window was created between 1405-8 by John Thornton (c1385- after 1433) for a fee of £46 and tells the story of the world from its beginning as told in the Book of Genesis, to its end as told in Revelations. Simeon could not see from standing on the ground, but the top piece of glass depicts God with the words “Ego sum Alpha et Omega“, which means “I am Alpha and Omega of all things”. A guide showed a close up of the glass on a tablet and pointed out the amusing graffiti left by conservators that read “top, centre” as though they would forget where it goes! It took conservators 92,400 hours to clean and protect all 311 glass panels.

Descending underground, Simeon braved the crypt, which contained some of the original Norman architecture. A disconcerting doomstone showed a carving of Hell in which lost souls were being pushed into a cauldron and boiled alive by demons. Needless to say, Simeon did not stay down there for long.

Before leaving the Minster, Simeon spent some time in the South Transept, which is the oldest part of the present building. Ironically, it has the newest roof because its old roof was destroyed when it was struck by lightning in 1984. Four years later, the roof had been rebuilt and Blue Peter set up a competition for children to design six of the new bosses on the theme of important events of the 20th century. The winning designs include the moon landing and the raising of Henry VIII’s (1419-1547) ship the Mary Rose. Another of the bosses, although not one of the competition entries, represents the nursery rhyme, Jack and Jill. Simeon was slightly disappointed that his favourite song, Head, Shoulders, Knees and Toes, was not featured.

The round window in the South Transept dates back to 1250, however, the stained glass was installed in 1515. Made up of a pattern of red and white roses, the window commemorated the union of the House of Lancaster and the House of York through the marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York (1466-1503). Strangely, the window features the red roses of Lancaster and the red and white Tudor rose, however, there are no white York roses. Miraculously, the Rose Window survived the lightning strike of 1984, however, it suffered 40,000 cracks in 8,000 pieces of glass. It would have been impossible to replace every panel of 16th-century glass, therefore, a special resin was produced to seal each crack.

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The wet weather put a bit of a damper on the rest of Simeon’s day, so to avoid the raindrops, he took the opportunity to explore a few shops, including those in the Shambles. Being a little gibbon with short legs, however, meant Simeon soon tired and needed refreshments. Fortunately, a stone’s throw away from Lendal bridge where Simeon had found himself, was a French Bistro called Rustique, where Simeon enjoyed steak and chips.

Day Four

From the moment he arrived in York, Simeon was keen to meet the Vikings and he finally got a chance at the Jorvik Viking Centre near Coppergate Shopping Centre. Jorvik (YOR-vik) was the name the Vikings gave to the city, from which the name York developed. In fact, the Vikings are responsible for many place names in Britain. The suffix -ness, for example, means headland, and -by means village or farm, as in Whitby: “white farm”.

Upon arriving at Jorvik, Simeon was ushered down a set of stairs, 9 metres underground to where the Viking street level once was. Years of debris and rubbish has caused the ground level to rise, however, this has been beneficial as the waterlogged soil helped to preserve the Viking village, which otherwise would have rotted to dust. Under a glass floor are the remains of two houses, which were discovered when foundations were being built for the shopping centre. Whilst the houses seem quite small, even to Simeon, they would have been the homes of large, extended families.

Formerly the Anglo-Saxon capital of Northumbria, York/Jorvik was captured by the Vikings in AD866. Under Viking rule, the city expanded and became a populous trading centre where many came to work or settle. The Vikings remained the rulers of Jorvik until AD954 when the Norwegian leader Eric Bloodaxe (885-954) was exiled from the land and possibly assassinated. Back under Anglo-Saxon control, York continued to develop, eventually becoming one of the largest cities in the new kingdom, England.

After a brief talk from a Viking (the face mask made his costume seem less authentic but Simeon did not mind), Simeon boarded the Ride Experience for a journey through a recreated Viking village featuring realistic, moving models, sounds and smells. The audio guide explained to Simeon that the Vikings arrived by sea from Scandinavia bringing with them all sorts of goods to trade, including animal pelts, whalebone and amber.

Simeon was a little concerned to see a woman tied up and even more perturbed to learn this was a common scene in Viking areas. When Vikings raided a village, they often took people captive as slaves. This woman, called Brónach, was captured in Ireland and was being taken to market to be sold. The market also sold food, including meat and fruit, clothes, and animals. Most people worked from their houses and Simeon passed a blacksmith, a cobbler, a weaver and a fisherman on his journey around the village.

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© 2012-2020 York Archaeological Trust

Whilst travelling through the market, Simeon saw a disabled lady trying to cross the road. Initially mistaking her for an elderly woman with a crutch, Simeon learnt the lady was called Leoba and moved to Jorvik when she was young. Now aged 46, which was quite old at that time, her health was beginning to deteriorate. Modelled on a skeleton that was discovered under Coppergate, Leoba had defects in her hip, knee and spine, which caused her to walk with a limp. At 5 ft 2in tall, Leoba had a widespread degenerative joint disease and traces of lead and strontium have been found on her skeleton.

Leoba was not the only Viking suffering from a physical condition that Simeon met on his trip. The leatherworker, Mord, had painfully clawed hands due to suffering from “Viking Disease”. Now known as Dupuytren’s contracture, the hand deformity occurs when the tissue under the palm of the hand begins to knot, causing the fingers to become bent.

After passing a man trying to use a cesspit (toilet), Simeon came to the final two scenes of the ride. The first revealed some of the pagan Vikings converted to Christianity. In Scandinavia, the Vikings worshipped Norse gods, such as Odin, Thor, Frey and Freya, however, they chose to leave those beliefs behind and adopt the religion of their new land. Viking monuments have been found in churches across York and several Viking rulers, including Guthfrith (d.895) and Sweyn Forkbeard (960-1014), were buried in York Minster. Evidence of Pre-Christian stories has also been discovered in York, including the story of Sigurðr the dragon-slayer.

After the ride came to an end, Simeon had the opportunity to view two rooms full of Viking artefacts that were discovered below the surface of Coppergate. These included bones, weapons, knives, coins, clothing and the largest fossilised human faeces. Fortunately, there were no smells in this part of the museum!

After a cup of tea at Lucky Days Cafe on Church Street, Simeon was keen to make the most of the good weather and headed to the Museum Gardens to explore the 10 acres of land that once belonged to St Mary’s Abbey. Throughout the grounds are the remains of the Benedictine abbey that was founded in 1055 and dedicated to Saint Olaf II of Norway (995-1030). After the Norman invasion, the abbey was granted to a group of monks from Whitby. The remaining ruins date from the 1260s when the abbey was expanded to create a defensive wall. The abbey was converted into a palace after Henry VIII banned all monasteries in the 1530s. The palace, however, was seldom used and soon fell into disrepair.

Some of the remains were once part of St Leonard’s Hospital, which shared the grounds with St Mary’s Abbey until the Reformation. The hospital was founded shortly after 1100 to replace a former hospital that had been damaged by fire. The hospital, which looked like a church, cared for the sick, poor and elderly, however, they could be denied treatment for refusing to confess their sins and partake in regular prayers and rituals.

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To one side of the abbey and hospital ruins is a medieval building that has stood the test of time. Known as a Hospitium, the 14th-century building would have once housed guests to the abbey who were not allowed to stay in the main abbey with the monks. Whereas the abbey and hospital were destroyed, the Hospitium has gone through several uses and, although fell to disrepair a few times, was saved by the Yorkshire Philosophical Society in 1828. Today it can be hired for weddings, parties and special events.

On the opposite side of the park is the Yorkshire Museum, which was one of the first purpose-built museums in the country. Designed by William Wilkins (1778-1839) in the neo-classical Greek Revival style, the museum opened in 1830 and is home to several collections, including geology, archaeology, natural history and palaeontology. Unfortunately, the Yorkshire Museum was still in lockdown at the time of Simeon’s visit.

Simeon’s favourite part of the garden was the botanical section, which has won the Gold Award at the Yorkshire in Bloom competition three years running. There are several themes throughout the garden, such as the Prairie Border, which contains the native flora of the American prairie, the Fern Garden, and the Oriental Border, with plants from China and Japan. Simeon liked the Butterfly Border best, which contains several perennial plants that are full of nectar and other plants on which butterflies like to hibernate.

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After leaving the garden, Simeon found himself by the River Ouse and went for a long walk up one side and down the other (actually, he was lazy and was carried the entire time!). All the walking (?!) made Simeon very tired and he was glad to find a cocktail bar on Coney Street with views of the river. After enjoying a burger at Revolution, Simeon returned to his cottage where he promptly fell asleep, dreaming of fighting Vikings in a garden full of flowers.

Day Five

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Before travelling to York, Simeon was told the city was nicknamed the Chocolate City and today he was determined to find out why. In King’s Square, a building has been devoted to York’s Chocolate Story, so using his nose, Simeon followed the scent of chocolate through the city until he found the correct building. Inside, Simeon joined his tour guide outside a make-shift shop to begin his journey through the history of chocolate.

York’s Chocolate Story has been told in the city since 2012 and begins by travelling back to around 1900 BC when the earliest evidence of humans consuming the cacao bean has been recorded. Simeon felt right at home in a room decorated to look like the Amazon rainforest and had to resist swinging from the trees but was soon captivated by the film about the origins of chocolate.

Simeon learnt that drinking chocolate has a much longer history than coffee, almost equalling the enduring history of tea. It is believed the cacao bean was discovered by the Mokaya people in the north of the Amazon rainforest who took it to other places in South and Central America. In Aztec societies, only the upper class were allowed to drink chocolate and in Mayan myths, chocolate was believed to be a gift from the gods.

Unfortunately, the way chocolate made its way to Europe paints the 16th-century explorers in a bad light. The Spanish were the first to discover the cacao-based drinks of the South American natives and were keen to trade with them. Girolamo Benzoni (1519-70) described the chocolate drink as “somewhat bitter, it satisfies and refreshes the body without intoxicating”. Whilst the natives agreed to trade with the Spanish, it was in part due to the Spanish colonisation of Central and South America. In other words, the natives may not have had a choice.

It was the Europeans that first added sugar to cocoa to make the chocolate drinks sweeter. Due to the cost of both the beans and sugar, chocolate was initially a drink for the rich. In 17th-century Britain, chocolate houses began to appear in the cities where the elite would congregate to drink the precious liquid. To make more money, however, dealers began to sell compressed “cakes” of cocoa powder, which people could buy to make chocolate drinks in their own homes.

Mary Tuke (1695-1752), a Quaker, was one of the key sellers of cocoa in York. In a grocery store on Walmgate, Tuke sold the “cakes” by weight, which people would take home and add to hot milk or water. This was the precursor to the chocolate bar, which was eventually created by J. S. Fry & Sons of Bristol in 1847. When Mary Tuke died, the family business was handed down to her nephew William (1732-1822) who, in turn, passed it down the family line until it was sold to Henry Isaac Rowntree (1837-83) in 1862.

Simeon had heard of Rowntrees and is particularly fond of their fruit pastilles, so was keen to learn more. The Rowntrees company was founded by Joseph Rowntree (1801-59) who moved from Scarborough to York where he established his grocer’s shop at 28 Pavement. As a Quaker, Rowntree knew the Tuke family as well as other Quakers, such as his apprentice George Cadbury (1839-1922) who eventually set up his own chocolate factory in Birmingham. Joseph’s youngest son, Henry, worked for the Tuke’s cocoa production, and it was to him the Tukes sold their business.

Henry Rowntree died shortly after Rowntree’s Fruit Pastilles launched, which saved the company from bankruptcy, and Henry’s brother Joseph (1836-1925) took over the business. Rowntrees, however, was not the only chocolate company in York. Terry’s, most associated with the Terry’s Chocolate Orange, was established in York by Robert Berry and William Bayldon in 1767. Initially known as Berry’s, they sold rock cocoa and lozenges, claiming they had many health benefits. Joseph Terry (1793-1850), a relative of Berry, joined the company at its Saint Helen’s Square (named after Constantine the Great’s mother) premises in 1824 and eventually took over the business, renaming it Joseph Terry and Company. Since 1993, Terry’s has been owned by Kraft Foods.

Craven’s, initially a sugar confectionery company famed for humbugs and other boiled sweets, is another chocolate company from York. The business had been set up by Thomas Craven and was run by his wife Mary Ann Hick (1829-1900) after his death in 1862. Craven’s main factory was at Coppergate and was known as the “French Almond Works” as this was their key product. It is on this site that the Viking remains were found and where the Jorvik Viking Centre has been situated since 1984.

Simeon was overjoyed to receive some chocolate samples to try. He was feeling rather hungry after learning about different chocolate bars. Yorkie, for example, was made by Rowntrees in the 1970s to compete with Cadbury’s Dairy Milk. Several names were considered, such as “Trek”, “O’Hara” and “Jones”, before they decided to name it “Yorkie” after the city of its birth. When it was first launched, Yorkie was targetted at men, hence the sexist slogan “It’s not for girls.”

Terry’s Chocolate Orange is Terry’s best-known product, however, they also developed the Chocolate Apple and the Chocolate Lemon, although neither were successful. Rowntrees, on the other hand, have had several successes, such as Polos, Smarties and the Chocolate Crisp, now known as KitKat. Now owned by Nestlé, who purchased Rowntrees in 1988, KitKats are the most sold chocolate bar around the world. In Japan, they are particularly loved due to the similarity in name to the phrase “Kitto Katsu” (you will surely win) and gifted as good luck presents. Different countries have developed alternative flavours of KitKat, such as honeycomb in Australia and a twelve-finger KitKat in New Zealand. Japan, however, has produced hundreds of flavours, including, strawberry, green tea, melon, and cheese. (“Yuck!” says Simeon.)

Simeon’s favourite part of the Chocolate Story was making his own chocolate lolly. Naturally, it did not last long. He was hungry after learning all about chocolate!

“No city in England is better furnished with provisions of every kind, not any so cheap, the river being so navigable, and so near the sea, the merchants here trade directly to what part of the world they will.”
– Daniel Defoe, 1724

With an entire afternoon at his leisure, Simeon decided to head to the River Ouse where he walked (was carried) yesterday. This time, however, Simeon was hoping to go on the river.

Near Lendel Bridge, Simeon boarded the York Sightseeing Cruise and set off on a 45-minute trip up and down the River Ouse. Simeon was not too sure whether he would enjoy the trip because it was quite breezy but, after adapting his facemask into a headscarf, he sat back and enjoyed the ride. The captain of the boat told the passengers about the history of York, pointing out famous landmarks that Simeon could see from the upper deck. The captain was full of fascinating facts about the history of flooding and trade on the river. Simeon enjoyed seeing all the views but fell about laughing when he saw a converted ice cream van-boat floating on the river!

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Back on land, Simeon was momentarily startled by a cat on the balcony of a nearby building. After being reassured the cat was a statue, Simeon learned there were several cats all over the city. The originals had been placed there to ward of rats and mice. Using a map supplied by the York Lucky Cats glass shop, Simeon set off on the York Lucky Cat Trail, determined to find them all. Craning his neck to look up at the tall buildings, Simeon found the majority of the hidden cats. His favourite was the ghost cat coming out of the wall of the Golden Fleece Pub. The pub is allegedly haunted and has reported the sightings of several ghosts. Lady Alice Peckett has been seen wandering the corridors, Geoff Monroe haunts the third floor, and a small child hides behind the entrance to the pub. Two ghosts have been reported by the bar: One-Eyed Jack and a Grumpy Old Man, who crouches in an alcove.

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Simeon decided The Golden Fleece was not the place for him, however, he was rather hungry after chasing cats all over York. Thankfully, he had spotted a restaurant called D’Vine in Swinegate and ordered himself a large pizza!

Day Six

Simeon, the little explorer, decided to step outside of York and travel through the North York Moors to the seaside town of Whitby. The journey, which took just over an hour, led Simeon up and down some steep hills and he was pleased when he caught sight of the River Esk, which headed out to the North Sea.

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The little gibbon was keen to see the ruins of Whitby Abbey on top of the East Cliff and was grateful someone was willing to carry him up the 199 steps. The abbey was founded in AD657 by the Northumbrian King Oswiu (612-670) in commemoration of his victory over the pagan king of Mercia. It was a double monastery, meaning it housed both men and women, and it soon became a place of learning. It is said a cowherd called Cædmon (657-684) was miraculously transformed into a poet while staying there. Simeon returned to sea level following the more gentle path known as “Cædmon’s Trod”.

Whitby Abbey was destroyed by Vikings in a series of raids, however, after 1066, it was rebuilt as a Benedictine monastery dedicated to St Peter and St Hilda. Unfortunately, it fell into disrepair when Henry VIII ordered its closure in 1539. The ruins of the abbey inspired the setting of Bram Stoker’s (1847-1912) Dracula and there is a museum based on the story on the quayside.

Having conquered the East Cliff, Simeon was determined to climb the West (with help) to see the whalebone replica and the statue of Captain James Cook (1728-79) whose ship, HMS Endeavour, was built in Whitby and known by the locals as the Whitby Cat. Simeon saw a scaled-down replica of the ship in the harbour called the Bark Endeavour Whitby. The Captain Cook Memorial Museum can be found on Grape Lane, however, Simeon was eager to walk on the grade II listed West Pier, which ran parallel to the East Pier. Both piers have a lighthouse and a beacon to help guide ships in the dark. On the West Pier, a horn is sounded every 30 seconds if the piers become hidden by thick fog.

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Before returning to York, Simeon had time for some local scampi at the award-winning fish and chip shop Quayside.

Day Seven

Simeon’s trip to York has come to an end and, whilst it was sad to leave, he has lots of great memories that will last him a lifetime. As he settled into his car seat for the long journey home (via Stamford for refreshments), Simeon tried to pick out his favourite part of York. Was it making a chocolate lolly or was it visiting Jorvik? What about the Minster or the Treasure Trail? Do not forget the boat trip and the bus tour! “It is impossible to choose a favourite,” thought Simeon. “I’ll have to tell everyone about ALL of it.” And so, he did.

Simeon’s Top Tips

  1. Book tickets for the attractions in advance. Most places are limiting the number of visitors due to Covid-19. (Generally, it is best to book to avoid disappointment)
  2. Buy a map. There is so much to see and so many streets, so be careful you do not get lost.
  3. Wear a mask. Obey all social distancing measures.
  4. Do not eat too much chocolate. You will get a tummy ache.
  5. Do not fall into the river. It is deep and you will get wet.
  6. Do not try to fight the Vikings. They are actors and wax models.
  7. Visit The Shambles in the evening if you want to take photographs. It is too crowded during the day.
  8. Do not fall off the Roman Walls. Not all sections have railings.
  9. Be respectful in the Minster. It is a place of worship.
  10. Pace yourself. There is so much to see. It is impossible to do it all in a day.

Read about Simeon’s previous adventures here:
Simeon goes to Amsterdam
Simeon and the Bloomsbury Treasures
Simeon Visits Rainham Hall
Simeon, the Cliffs and the Sea
Simeon Encounters Antwerp
Simeon Investigates Covent Garden
Simeon and the Green Witch’s Treasure

Simeon and the Green Witch’s Treasure

Ahoy there, Simeon! The Cutty Sark restoration team have come across a strange document wedged in behind the ship’s figurehead. A map of an island and set of directions allude to “The Green Witch Treasure”. But which witch? Do they mean Greenwich? And what treasure? Can you follow the trail for a spell and see where it leads – and maybe you’ll earn some bounty in return?

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After receiving a copy of the map and directions from Treasure Trails, Simeon the red-haired gibbon (toffee-coloured, if you please) wasted no time in getting himself to Greenwich to discover the mystery of “The Green Witch Treasure”. (Naturally this included a trip on the Emirates Airline and the Thames Clipper; after all, he is a very adventurous gibbon.) From the Cutty Sark to the Royal Observatory, Simeon raked over the ground, climbed up steep hills (he was carried) and investigated several buildings. He studied the Meridian line, appreciated the architectural beauty of the Queen’s House, Naval College, and the Maritime Museum, and resisted the temptation to jump into the River Thames (it was a hot day). Eventually, Simeon unearthed the location of the treasure but, along the way, he found and learnt about the hidden treasures of Greenwich.

Greenwich, located 5.5 miles from the heart of London, is notable for its maritime history and for giving its name to the Greenwich Merdian (0° longitude) and Greenwich Mean Time. It was the birthplace of many of the Tudor Royals, who once spent time at the Palace of Placentia. During the reign of Charles II (1630-85), the palace was demolished and a new building erected, now used by the University of Greenwich.

With reference to a place named Gronewic in a Saxon charter of 918 AD, it is believed the area of Greenwich has been populated for over 1000 years. It is recorded as Grenviz in the Domesday Book of 1086, and later as Grenewych in the Taxatio Ecclesiastica of 1291.

As Simeon discovered at the top of Greenwich Park after a long uphill walk, the ground is full of huge mounds and craters, making it appear as though they were the foundations of an old house. Further research reveals these are tumuli, also known as barrows or burial mounds. These are thought to be early Bronze Age barrows (3000 BC), which were later appropriated by the Saxons in the 6th century AD.

During the reign of Æthelred II (the Unready; 966-1016), a Danish fleet (i.e. Viking) anchored on the River Thames and camped on the hill in Greenwich for three years. During this time, they attacked the county of Kent and took the Archbishop of Canterbury as their prisoner. This was Archbishop Alphege (or Ælfheah; 935-1012), who was kept prisoner for seven months until he was stoned to death for his refusal to allow his ransom of 3,000 pieces of silver to be paid.

Shortly into Simeon’s treasure trail, he entered St. Alfege Passage and came across a church bearing the sign “open”. Being the lazy little gibbon that he is, Simeon decided it was a great opportunity for a rest but what he found inside was so interesting that he barely sat down at all! The church is built on the site where Saint Alfege was allegedly killed and a memorial stone marks the spot inscribed with the words “He who dies for justice, dies for Christ.”

The current building, which is undergoing restoration work, was not the first church on the site. No one knows when the first was built but records state the second building was built during the 13th century. It is highly likely that Henry VIII (1491-1547) and other Tudor royals were baptised in this church and one of the stained glass windows depicts this event.

Another stained glass window depicts Thomas Tallis (1505-85), the “father of English church music”. He was the organist at St. Alfege Church during the reigns of four Tudor monarchs: Henry VIII, Edward VI (1537-53), Mary I (1516-55) and Elizabeth I (1533-1603). On display is an old organ that may date to Tallis’ time. This was replaced after the Second World War, however, the current organ was transferred to the church from Eton College in the year 2000.

The second church building was destroyed in 1710 when a gale caused the medieval roof to collapse. A new church was proposed and Nicholas Hawksmoor (1661-1736), a pupil of Sir Christopher Wren (1632-1723), was chosen to be the architect. The building was completed by 1714, however, on 19th March 1941, an incendiary bomb hit the roof of the church and destroyed a lot of the architecture. In 1946, rebuilding began but many of the original features had to be replaced.

Fortunately, much of the altar survived the bombing during the Second World War. The iron rails were designed by Jean Tijou, a French Huguenot ironworker who also produced screens for Hampton Court and St. Paul’s Cathedral. The original trompe l’œil painting around the alter by James Thornhill, famed for his work in the Painted Hall at the Old Royal Naval College, had to be carefully restored.

There were many things that caught Simeon’s eye around the church, including a Coventry Cross made from the medieval nails of Coventry Cathedral, which had been destroyed during World War II. Simeon enjoyed seeing the stained glass depicting Thomas Tallis and Henry VIII’s baptism. There were also windows commemorating the marriage of Princess Mary (1496- 1533), the fourth child of Henry VII (1457-1509), to the Earl of Suffolk, and General Charles George Gordon (1833-85), who was baptised there in 1833.

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At the back of the church is a memorial to General James Wolfe (1727-59), who is also remembered with a statue at the top of Greenwich Park. General Wolfe was 32 when he died after leading his troops to victory at the siege of Quebec in 1759. Wolfe, who had moved to Greenwich in 1738, worshipped at St. Alfege Church and is subsequently buried in a vault in the crypt. Thomas Tallis is also buried in the crypt, as is Sir John Julius Angerstein (1735-1823), the “father of Lloyds of London”, and Samuel Enderby (1719-97), the founder of Samuel Enderby & Sons. Other famous worshippers at St. Alfege’s include Reverend John Flamsteed (1646-1719), the first Astronomer Royal; MP for Canterbury Sir James Creed (1695-1762), for whom the steep street Simeon climbed is named; and Sir John Lethieullier (1633-1719), a sheriff of London. In Charles Dicken’s (1812-70) novel Our Mutual Friend, a wedding takes place in St. Alfege Church.

Up near the statue of General Wolfe in Greenwich Park is Charles II’s Royal Observatory. Initially, this was the site of a tower erected by Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester (1390-1447), the half-brother of Henry V (1386-1422). It was at this observatory that the Greenwich Meridian was determined. A prime meridian and its antimeridian create a full circle that divides the planet into two sections: the Eastern Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere. The Greenwich Meridian passes through the United Kingdom, France, Spain, Algeria, Mali, Burkina Faso, Togo, Ghana and Antarctica. There is an opportunity to stand on the spot that the (invisible) line passes through, however, Simeon was in too much of a hurry to find his buried treasure to stop and join the crowds of people awaiting their turn.

From the highest point in Greenwich Park, the only hill overlooking the Thames on the eastern approach to London, there is a magnificent view over London. Simeon spotted the towers of Canary Wharf in the background, however, he was most impressed with the buildings at the bottom of the hill. One of these buildings is called the Queen’s House and was commissioned by the wife of James I (1566-1625), Queen Anne of Denmark (1574-1619). The house, designed by Inigo Jones (1573-1652), is one of the surviving buildings belonging to Greenwich Palace. Unfortunately, Anne did not live to see the final outcome and Charles I (1600-49) gave the completed house to his wife Queen Henrietta Maria (1609-69).

The Queen’s House did not remain Queen Henrietta Maria’s house for long due to the English Civil War, which began in 1641. During this time, Greenwich Palace was used as a prisoner-of-war camp as well as a biscuit factory. Later, throughout the Interregnum (1649-1660) the palace and park were seized for the Lord Protector’s use as a mansion. By the time of the Restoration, the remains of the old Palace of Placentia had been pulled down and Charles II began to oversee the construction of new buildings, including the aforementioned Royal Observatory.

Prince James (1633-1701), the Duke of York and future king, was the person to propose the idea of creating a Royal Naval Hospital in the buildings closest to the Thames, however, it was not until his daughter Mary (1662-94) was on the throne that the work began. The construction of the hospital was eventually finished in 1696.

A century later, the Queen’s House, as it is still known, was transformed into the Royal Naval Asylum, a school for children orphaned by war, by George III (1738-1820). This was later amalgamated with the Greenwich Hospital School before eventually being renamed the Royal Hospital School by Queen Victoria (1819-1901) in 1892. As well as the Queen’s House, the school inhabited the building next door, which is now the National Maritime Museum.

The National Maritime Museum was opened during the reign of George V (1865-1936). The Royal Hospital was moved to Suffolk so that the museum could inhabit the buildings in Greenwich. Forming part of the Maritime Greenwich World Heritage Site and Royal Museums Greenwich, the museum contains some of the most important items in relation to the history of Britain at sea. The two million items include maritime art, maps, naval manuscripts and navigational instruments. Two of Britain’s greatest seamen are also celebrated in the museum: Admiral Horatio Nelson (1758-1805) and Captain James Cook (1728-79). Although the museum is free to enter, Simeon passed up the opportunity in favour of finding his hidden treasure.

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Despite his persistence in continuing the treasure trail, Simeon had time to give a cursory glance to the granite statue of William IV (1765-1837) at the back of the museum. The statue was made by Samuel Nixon (1804-1854) and represents the King in the uniform of a high admiral. Although this statue is impressive, another artwork had caught Simeon’s eye.

Situated on a plinth outside the new Sammy Ofer Wing of the National Maritime Museum is Yinka Shonibare MBE’s (b.1962) Nelson’s Ship in a Bottle (2010). Originally commissioned for the fourth plinth in Trafalgar Square, this scaled-down replica of Nelson’s HMS Victory sits protected from the elements in a large, corked glass bottle. HMS Victory was the ship on which the war hero died during the Battle of Trafalgar on 21st October 1805. The impressive ship had 80 cannons and 37 sails, although they would not have been as richly decorated as the sails in the model. Shonibare chose to use a pattern inspired by Indonesian batik, which was mass-produced by Dutch traders during Nelson’s lifetime. This alludes to the negative usage of ships such as these, which enabled colonialism, industrialisation, and the misuse of cultural appropriation. Today, this model is one of the most photographed artworks in London.

At the exit of Greenwich Park near Park Row, our little friend was distracted by several enormous anchors. Each one was once used upon a British ship and they now serve as a memorial to the ships used between the 18th and 20th century. Early seafarers would have used stone, wood or lead to make their anchors, however, as seen here, they soon discovered that iron served the best purpose.

The most common shape of an anchor is known as the Admiralty-pattern and consists of a shank with a stock and ring at one end and a crown with flukes at the other. A length of cable would lower the anchor by its ring into the water and the flukes on the crown would dig into the seabed, eventually pinning the ship in place. Anchors on display include an Admiralty-pattern recovered off the coast of Sheerness in Kent dating to approximately 1750, an Admiralty-pattern from the Kathrena Anne (1805), a single-fluke anchor from 1820, and a 4-tonne anchor from the Royal Yacht Victoria and Albert (1899).

The one that intrigued Simeon the most was the bright red and yellow, many-toothed cutterhead from a cutter suction dredger. Although more than heavy enough to be used as an anchor, the cutterhead’s purpose was to remove materials from the seabed in land reclamation projects in the Far East. It eventually became obsolete in 1995.

Simeon’s treasure trail eventually led him to the riverfront where Thames Clippers and other boats sail throughout the day. From Greenwich Pier, a number of riverboat services take passengers to Westminster via Canary Wharf, the Tower of London and Embankment. For those who wish to travel to the opposite bank of the Thames, a foot tunnel was designed by civil engineer Sir Alexander Binnie (1839-1917) and opened in 1902. The tunnel exits in Millwall on the Isle of Dogs, which was once home to the West India Docks. The entrance to the tunnel can be found inside a glass-domed shaft beside the famous Cutty Sark.

The Cutty Sark is a British clipper ship built in 1869 that has been preserved on dry land for the benefit of visitors and conserving British maritime history. Although a major fire destroyed a large part of the ship in 2007, a restoration team returned the Cutty Sark to her former glory.

Simeon, of course, had no time to pay the interior of the Cutty Sark a visit, however, he was content to view the impressive ship from the outside. From there, Simeon had a great view of Nannie Dee, the ship’s figurehead, which has been attributed to carver Fredrick Hellyer of Blackwall. The Cutty Sark was named after Nannie Dee, who’s nickname was Cutty-sark, a term that means “short undergarment”. Her story can be found in the poem Tam o’ Shanter (1791) by Scottish poet Robert Burns (1759-96).

Her cutty sark, o’ Paisley harn,
That while a lassie she had worn,
In longitude tho’ sorely scanty,
It was her best, and she was vauntie.
Ah! little kend thy reverend grannie
That sark she coft for her wee Nannie
Wi’ twa pund Scots (’twas a’ her riches)
Wad ever graced a dance of witches!
– Tam o’ Shanter

The figurehead is completely white, with hair flowing back as though moving at speed. In her outstretched left hand is a clump of long black hair from the tail of a horse. In the poem, Tam has come across a group of dancing witches and falls in love with Nannie Dee. Whilst watching them from afar, he forgets himself and calls out “Weel done, Cutty-sark!” Alerted to his presence, the witches chase him and, although he survives, Nannie Dee managed to grab hold of his horse’s tail and pull it off before he had crossed the river to safety.

“Fascinating,” thought Simeon. “But on with the trail!”

Eventually, Simeon located the position of his much sought after treasure. Completely elated, he was not concerned that he never found out who the elusive “Green Witch” was; perhaps she was Nannie Dee? On his two and a half-mile trek, Simeon enjoyed discovering the history of Greenwich and finding some hidden gems. As well as seeing all the historical buildings and taking in the view from the top of Greenwich Park, Simeon had the opportunity to have photos taken with various statues, explore the town centre and admire the Georgian houses while he was being carried up Croom’s Hill. He was also able to walk through Greenwich Market and look at (but not buy) a range of wares.

It is believed that a market has existed in Greenwich since the 14th century. The present market, however, dates back to 1700 when a charter was agreed by Lord Henry, Earl of Romney (1641-1704) that the Commissioners of Greenwich Hospital could hold a market every Wednesday and Saturday. Today, the market runs daily and is surrounded by Grade 2 listed buildings. In the early 1900s, a roof was added to the market place so that sellers could have a dry place to sell their articles at all times of the year. Selling predominantly antiques, fashion and food, the market opens daily at 10am.

Treasure Trails allows people to explore areas around the United Kingdom at their own pace whilst solving clues in order to find fictional treasure or solve a murder mystery. Simeon thoroughly enjoyed the Greenwich Treasure Trail and wholly recommends it, although be aware that there is a rather steep hill. Thanks to the intricate trail, Simeon and friends discovered things about Greenwich that they would have otherwise missed. To top it all, Simeon is now the owner of yet another Treasure Trail certificate!

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Read about Simeon’s previous adventures here:
Simeon goes to Amsterdam
Simeon and the Bloomsbury Treasures
Simeon Visits Rainham Hall
Simeon, the Cliffs and the Sea
Simeon Encounters Antwerp
Simeon Investigates Covent Garden

For more information about Treasure Trails and the areas they cover, please visit their website.

Simeon Investigates Covent Garden

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Simeon the red-haired gibbon (toffee-coloured, if you please) was beyond excited to receive a letter from Treasure Trails with a number of clues to solve a mysterious murder in the heart of London. Famous detective novelist Lotta Twist (fictional but don’t tell Simeon!) has died under baffling circumstances and it was up to Simeon, with a little help from his friends, to work out which suspect was the murderer and what weapon they used.

After hunting high and low between Leicester Square and Covent Garden, Simeon solved the mystery but, along the way, he discovered many exciting streets and buildings. Of course, the biggest and most popular of all was Covent Garden’s central square, London’s main theatre and entertainment area. The Covent Garden Piazza is full of luxury shops, street entertainers, market stalls and hundreds of excited tourists; and amongst them, was a little wide-eyed detective, Simeon.

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Apple Market, Covent Garden Market traders inside Inigo Jones’ “handsomest barn in England”.

Covent Garden is the name of a district in the capital that stretches from St Martin’s Lane near Trafalgar Square and Drury Lane, towards Camden. Although it is now a popular shopping and tourist area, it used to be famous for the former fruit-and-vegetable market in the central square. Simeon was intrigued to discover the market stalls selling homemade wares was still known as Apple Market.

The history of Covent Garden dates back to 400 AD when the area near St Martin’s-in-the Fields was used as a Roman gravesite. Excavations have also suggested that there were Anglo-Saxon settlements nearby. From around 600 AD, the land stretching from Trafalgar Square to Aldwych was a trading town called Lundenwic, however, during the reign of the King of Wessex, Alfred the Great (c.847-899), the boundaries of the capital were shifted and the town was abandoned, eventually becoming a field.

A document dating from 1200 AD states that the land became the property of the Benedictine Monks of the Abbey of St Peter, now known as Westminster Abbey. Over the next century, a square garden, approximately 40 acres long, was gradually established, combining orchards, meadows, pastures and arable land. Adopting the Anglo-French word for a religious community, the quadrangle became known as “a garden called Covent Garden”. The name has stuck ever since.

The Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1540, meant the land belonging to Westminster Abbey, including Covent Garden, became the possession of King Henry VIII (1491-1547). Just over a decade later, however, Henry’s son Edward VI (1537-53) granted the land to John Russell, 1st Earl of Bedford (1485-1555). The Russell family, who were eventually elevated to the Dukes of Bedford, held the land until 1918.

The land, including Covent Garden, did not remain farmland under the Russell family’s ownership. In 1630, Francis Russell, the 4th Earl, commissioned the English architect Inigo Jones (1573-1652) to build a church (St Paul’s Church) and houses around a large square. Initially, these houses attracted the wealthy, however, they lost their appeal after a market was set up in the square, coffee houses and taverns were opened, and prostitutes moved in.

As a result, due to the seedy establishments, Covent Garden became known as a red-light district and gentlemen had a wide choice of brothels to visit in the area. Things improved after a more permanent trading centre was built in 1830. Later, in 1913, the 11th Duke of Bedford, Herbrand Russell (1858-1940) agreed to sell his estate to the MP Sir Harry Mallaby-Deeley (1863-1937) for £2 million. Not long after, it was sold in 1918 to the Beecham family for £250,000.

The Beecham family, the proprietors of Beecham Estates and Pills Limited, managed the properties around Covent Garden until 1924 when they gradually began to sell them off. By 1962, the main bulk of the district, including the market place became the property of the newly founded Covent Garden Authority at a cost of £3,925,000. Since then, redevelopments have been undertaken and the main market building was opened as the shopping centre it is today in 1980.

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Simeon was intrigued to discover the original rules, orders and bye-laws of the market on the wall of one of the tunnels leading into the centre of the market place. Despite the warnings of various penalties, it appears the rules are no longer enforced.

Notice is hereby given that in persuance of the Act of Parliament passed in the ninth year of the Reign of King George the fourth entitled “An Act for the Improvement and Regulation of Covent Garden Market” the several Rules, Orders and Byelawes hereunder written have been constituted, provided and ordained for the purpose in the said Act mentioned. Dated this 22nd Day of May 1924

Simeon thought it rather naughty of the stallholders to disobey the rules that were clearly stated on the wooden sign. “No Fruit, Flowers, Vegetables, Roots, Herbs or other thing shall be placed, pitched, exposed for sale, or sold in any part of the said Market on a Sunday.” Well, that’s a 40 shilling penalty everyone should be paying, deemed Simeon in disgust.

“No person shall sleep or lie down on any Stand, Footpath or Gangway in the said Market or on the said Terrace or Steps leading thereto.” Just as well Simeon did not need a nap, otherwise, that would have cost him five shillings.

“No person shall carry, use or have any lighted Candle or other Light except in a Lanthern …” Try telling that to the fire juggler!

Of course, these rules were written when the market sold fruit and vegetables and not the hand-crafted commodities of today. Covent Garden now boasts some of the best luxury clothes shops in London, including Chanel, Mulberry UK and Sass & Belle. There are also independent stores, such as Benjamin Pollock’s Toy Shop, which sells creative, theatrical and educational toys that nurture storytelling.

Opposite the Covent Garden piazza is Jubilee Hall, which contains Jubilee Market, the only market in London to be wholly owned by traders. The market opened in 1904 and was later taken over by the traders in order to save the building from bankruptcy. Along with the rest of Covent Garden, Jubilee Hall was renovated in 1985 and reopened by Queen Elizabeth II (b.1926) on 5th August 1987.

The stalls in Jubilee Market change from day-to-day. On Mondays, the market offers a whole range of antiques. Sold by professional antique dealers, collectables can be found from every era and style, including Georgian, Victorian, Edwardian, Art Deco, Art Nouveau, fine china and old books. From Tuesday until Friday, the market describes itself as a General Market. During this period, traders can sell anything they wish and shoppers can find bargains on plants, greeting cards, beauty products, clothes and souvenirs.

The weekends at Jubilee Market are devoted to the arts and crafts. Traders show off their creative skills and sell their art to the public. The term “Art” in this case is rather broad and visitors can expect to find anything from hand-painted items, jewellery and fashion to metal sculptures, fossils and minerals.

Whilst the market place is the main attraction, Simeon’s murder mystery trail took him up and down streets and alleyways that were just as exciting. As well as solving clues, Simeon discovered many interesting things about Covent Garden, including statues, noteworthy buildings and famous people associated with the area.

One of the first buildings that caught Simeon’s attention looked at first to be a regular sandwich shop: Pret a Manger. The building’s history, or rather the site’s history, on the other hand, is much more noteworthy. A green, circular plaque situated on the upper level of the building reveals that this was the site of the Old Slaughters Coffee House. Whilst the plaque and present building are in Cranbourne Street, the original address of the coffee house was 77 St Martin’s Lane. The building was destroyed when Cranbourne Street was built in 1843.

The Old Slaughters Coffee House was opened by Thomas Slaughter in 1692. It was frequented by game players who would meet to partake in chess, draughts and whist amongst other things. For a time, Benjamin Franklin (1706-90), the American polymath and founding father of the United States, was one of the establishment’s regular players. It was also popular with artists, including, Thomas Gainsborough (1727-88), William Hogarth (1697-1764) and Louis-François Roubillac (1702-62). The English dramatist Henry Fielding (1707-54) was another regular patron of the coffee shop. Incidentally, Fielding lived in the area and came up with the idea of the Bow Street Runners, an early form of the Police Force. Eventually, Britain’s first Police Station was opened on Bow Street and manned by Robert Peel (1788-1850).

The coffee shop’s claim to fame is for its use as a meeting house for discussions that resulted in the founding of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (later the RSPCA) in 1824. The meeting was organised by the Reverend Arthur Broome (1779-1837) and chaired by the MP Sir Thomas Foxwell Buxton (1786-1845). Amongst the eight attendees was William Wilberforce (1759-1833), who was also responsible for the abolition of the slave trade.

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Almost opposite the site of the Old Slaughters Coffee House is a memorial to the writer and playwright Dame Agatha Christie (1890-1976). Unveiled by her grandson Matthew Prichard amongst others on 18th November 2012, the book-shaped sculpture by Ben Twiston-Davies celebrates the 60th anniversary and 25,000 London performances of Christie’s play The Mousetrap.

The memorial provides a brief biography of Agatha Christie née Miller who was born on 15th September 1890 in Torquay, Devon. She was educated at home, which helped to develop her lifelong passion for writing and reading. She also developed an interest in poisons, which secured her with a position as pharmaceutical dispenser during the First World War. This, in turn, provided her with considerable knowledge to use in her novels.

Agatha married her first husband, Archibald “Archie” (1889-1962) on Christmas Eve 1914 in Bristol whilst he was on leave from the army. In 1919, their only child Rosalind Margaret Hicks was born – the future mother of Matthew Prichard and unveiler of this statue. Unfortunately, Agatha and Archie’s marriage was not to last after he fell in love with another woman. In 1930, however, Christie met Max Mallowan (1904-78) who she subsequently married.

Due to being an archaeologist, Mallowan was required to travel extensively, particularly in the Middle East. Christie accompanied her husband and the places she visited became the settings for some of her murder mysteries.

At the time the memorial was erected, Agatha Christie’s books had sold over two billion copies in 100 languages. She is famous for her characters Hercule Poirot, the all-knowing Belgian detective, and Miss Jane Marple, the all-seeing village spinster. The Mousetrap, amongst many other plays and books, shot to fame during Christie’s lifetime making her one of the most successful and best-loved writers of all time. Agatha Christie was appointed Dame Commander of the British Empire in 1971, five years before she died on 12th January 1976.

Almost immediately around the corner from Agatha Christie’s memorial is the St Martin’s Theatre where The Mousetrap has been performed continually since March 1974. Having moved there from the Ambassadors Theatre on Charing Cross Road, the play is now the longest-running production in the world.

Opposite the theatre is another building Simeon found of interest. Situated in a narrow, slightly triangular building is The Ivy, a restaurant popular with celebrities and theatregoers. It was opened as an Italian cafe in 1917 by Abele Giandolini “Monsieur Abel”. Over the years, it has become the haunt of many famous names, including, Laurence Olivier (1907-89), Vivien Leigh (1913-67), Marlene Dietrich (1901-92), Terence Rattigan (1911-77) and Noël Coward (1899-1973).

In 1950, The Ivy was sold to Bernard Walsh who made it part of a chain of fish restaurants. The establishment changed hands twice more before closing in 1989. Fortunately, it was saved from permanent closure by Jeremy King and Chris Corbin who renovated the building and reopened it the following year. Today, The Ivy is owned by multi-millionaire Richard Caring (b.1948).

The Ivy can seat up to 100 guests at a time, plus a further 60 in the private dining area on the first floor. No mobile phones or cameras are allowed in the building and there is a strict dress code. Simeon, wearing absolutely nothing, decided not to try his luck in securing a table for lunch.

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There are many other pubs and restaurants around Covent Garden and, if Simeon had been a drinker, his murder mystery trail could easily have turned into a pub crawl! According to Trip Advisor, some of the best bars and pubs in the area are The Kings Arms, Mr Fogg’s Tavern (named after the fictional explorer Phileas Fogg), Crown and Anchor, Lady of the Grapes and The Long Acre Bar & Kitchen. Some of these establishments are easy to find, whereas others are hidden away in the city’s courtyards and backstreets.

The Lamb and Flag (formerly The Coopers Arms) was established on Rose Street in 1833. Despite being small and out of the way, the pub earned a reputation for staging bare-knuckle prize fights, earning it the nickname “The Bucket of Blood”. The covered alleyway (mind your head!) to the side of the building also has a sinister history. It was here that the English poet John Dryden (1631-1700) was attacked by thugs in 1679. It is believed the 2nd Earl of Rochester, John Wilmot (1647-80) was responsible for hiring the thugs. There had been a long-standing conflict between the two men.

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Simeon enjoyed investigating all the little alleyways and discovering where they led. Whilst trying to solve a mystery, Simeon also unearthed other mysteries, for example, Monty Python’s house. Simeon’s first question was, “Why did a python named Monty have a house in Neal’s Yard?” His second question, after establishing that Monty Python is a British surreal comedy group who created the sketch comedy television show Monty Python’s Flying Circus, “How can ‘Monty Python’ have a plaque stating that the filmmaker ‘lived here 1976-1987’?”

The answer: Rather than commemorating a person as the plaque implies, it is indicating the location of the Monty Python studios in Neal’s Yard. This is where the British surreal comedy group created their BBC sketch show, which first aired on 5th October 1969. Broadcast until 1974, the series was written and performed by a group of six people known as “the Pythons”: Graham Chapman (1941-89), John Cleese (b.1939), Terry Gilliam (b.1940), Eric Idle (b.1943), Terry Jones (b.1942), and Michael Palin (b.1943). The show pushed the boundaries of what was acceptable at the time, influencing British comedy of the future.

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As well as being part of Covent Garden, Neal’s Yard and the surrounding streets are also known as Seven Dials. This is a junction where seven streets converge, forming a circular space at the centre. The land originally belonged to the estate of the Worshipful Company of Mercers, however, in the 1690s Thomas Neale (1641-99) designed a new layout consisting of six residential roads to replace the open farmland. Although the plan was for six roads, Neale added in a seventh road in order to own and lease out more properties. This area was used as the setting for Agatha Christie’s The Seven Dials Mystery (1929).

“The stranger who finds himself in the Dials for the first time…at the entrance of Seven obscure passages, uncertain which to take, will see enough around him to keep his curiosity awake for no inconsiderable time…”
– Charles Dickens

In the centre of Seven Dials is a sundial column, however, because the original plan was for six roads, there are only six faces or dials. The column itself is said to be the gnomon (the piece that casts the shadow) of the seventh dial. The original column was built by the stonemason Edward Pierce who based the design on a Doric column. Today, a replica sits in its place. The column itself is 20 feet high, however, it is sat on top of an 8-foot plinth, making it appear even taller.

Intrigued about the sundial, Simeon was pleased to discover a plaque on the wall of a nearby pub containing instructions for using the dial to tell the time. “The Sundials show local apparent solar time. To convert this to Greenwich Mean Time (G.M.T) use the graph below. Find today’s date and add or deduct the number of minutes shown (+ or – on the graph) to the time showing on the sundials to obtain G.M.T. ” Each of the faces is accurate to within ten seconds. It is impossible to get a totally accurate reading because the sundial is positioned to the west of Greenwich, thus making it 3.048 seconds behind G.M.T.

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There is so much more to discover around Covent Garden and Simeon, being only a little gibbon, had only enough energy to walk up and down a few of the streets. Nonetheless, there are a couple more highlights Simeon wishes to mention. The first is a beautiful statue of a ballerina opposite the Royal Opera House.

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Also situated near the Royal Ballet School, Young Dancer by Italian-born British sculptor Enzo Plazzotta (1921-81) is a statue of a ballerina sitting on a stool while lacing up her shoes. Plazzotta is remembered for his fascination with movement and portraying this with bronze. Although this particular model is not in the process of moving, ballet and dance were Plazzotta’s favourite subjects. This statue was unveiled in 1988, seven years after the artist’s death. There are a number of other sculptures by Plazzotta around the capital, including, Crucifixion outside Westminster Abbey, Jéte (a ballet movement) near the Tate Modern, a homage to Leonardo da Vinci’s Vitruvian Man in Belgrave Square, and Camargue Horses near the Barbican.

Whilst Simeon enjoyed posing with the young dancer, his favourite thing about his trail through Covent Garden was knowing he was walking in the footsteps of famous and important people of the past. Many names have already been mentioned, however, before he reached the Covent Garden Market, Simeon found one more person to add to his list.

Along Henrietta Street above what is now the designer men’s shoe and clothes shop Oliver Sweeney, is where the novelist Jane Austen (1775-1817) stayed between 1813 and 14. In 1813, Jane’s older brother Henry lost his wife Eliza after a long and debilitating illness. After her death, Henry moved into the rooms above Tilson’s Bank on Henrietta Street, which is where Jane and her niece Fanny Knight visited him.

While she was visiting her brother, Jane took the opportunity to do some shopping, writing to her sister, “I hope that I shall find some poplin at Layton and Shear’s that will tempt me to buy it. If I do it shall be sent to Chawton, as half will be for you; for I depend upon your being so kind as to accept it . . . It will be a great pleasure to me. Don’t say a word. I only wish you could choose it too. I shall send twenty yards.” The shop she mentioned was also on Henrietta Street. Today, a plaque marks the apartments in which she stayed.

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Where’s Simeon?

Simeon (and friends) thoroughly enjoyed the murder mystery trail around Covent Garden set by Treasure Trails. This was not the first trail the little gibbon has completed, nor will it be the last. The trails allow you to solve fictional murders or find buried treasure, at the same time as discovering the hidden secrets of cities and towns around the United Kingdom. There are over 1000 trails to choose from that provide a fun way to explore all parts of the country.

Simeon has learnt that Convent Garden is not only a market but a whole district. He found hidden alleyways, beautiful statues, impressive buildings and interesting historical facts but, most importantly, he caught the killer. Simeon highly recommends Treasure Trails and cannot wait to go on his next adventure. I wonder where that will be?

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Catch up with Simeon’s previous adventures here:
Simeon goes to Amsterdam
Simeon and the Bloomsbury Treasures
Simeon Visits Rainham Hall
Simeon, the Cliffs and the Sea
Simeon Encounters Antwerp

For more information about Treasure Trails and the areas they cover, please visit their website.

Simeon, the Cliffs and the Sea

44583368_10214999823220473_1332140611444146176_nCan you believe that Simeon had been abroad but had never seen the sea? The red-haired gibbon (toffee-coloured, if you please) knew he had to rectify that, so took advantage of the pleasant, late-October sunshine and travelled to Essex’s famous seaside, Southend-on-Sea. With a map produced by Treasure Trails to help him, Simeon was ready to explore.

Southend-on-Sea, more commonly known as Southend, lies on the north side of the Thames Estuary, approximately 40 miles from Central London. With a train service running directly to the capital, Southend has been a popular holiday and day trip destination for millions of people. Originally a handful of fishermen’s huts, the old village has developed into a large, commercial town, now home to the world’s longest pier, an airport and an amusement park.

Adventure Island, formerly known as Peter Pan’s Playground, lies either side of the entrance to the pier on Southend’s seafront. The area began as a seaside garden, appropriately named Sunken Gardens, in 1918, adding a couple of children’s rides two years later. It was not until 1976, when the site was extensively redeveloped, that it earned the title “amusement park”. Since then, the playground has expanded, regularly adding new rides, such as its first roller coaster Green Scream in 1999.

Simeon decided to give the amusement park a miss, the sight of the 97-degree drop on one of the newest rides making his stomach churn. Besides, he did not reach the height requirement to even ride the gentlest mini rides. Simeon was far more interested in the crashing waves and sandy beach.

Southend-on-Sea’s foreshore has been registered as a protected nature reserve due to its importance to migrating birds, particularly in the winter. Every year, Southend welcomes local and international birds to its beaches where they find food to survive the cold months. Southend and the rest of the Thames Estuary support the fifth largest amount of wintering waterfowl of any estuary in the United Kingdom. An estimated 153,000 birds flock to the muddy foreshore, which is full of burrowing creatures such as worms, cockles and mussels.

Along the sea walls and under the water are a number of different creatures. Crabs congregate in sheltered areas, including rock pools or under pebbles. Sea sponges and anemones are often found attached to the underside of the pier along with typical plant life that attracts many waterfowl. Under the sea, a rare plant called eelgrass has flourished, drawing the attention of Dark-bellied Brent Geese who particularly like the delicacy.

Other birds that are often found along the coastline at Southend are the common gull, black-headed gull, grey plover, ringed plover and shelduck. With protection, the natural landscape produces enough plants and sea creatures to feed these species and more.

Simeon was a little disappointed that it was not quite the winter season when he visited Southend and, therefore, was not able to meet the winter visitors. Nonetheless, he was intrigued to find out about the environment along the Essex coastline. Although hiding on the day of his visit, the Thames Estuary is home to Harbour Seals and, during the summer, the occasional Harbour Porpoise.

Those who travel to Southend purposely to see the wildlife do not have to rely on luck, good weather or time of year, instead they can visit Sealife Adventure along the Eastern Esplanade. Seemingly the number one aquarium in the south-east, Sealife Adventure is filled with fish, turtles and a walk-through tunnel shark tank.

As well as nature, Southend-on-Sea is full of history, some forgotten and some that have left their mark. There are a few things that Southend is particularly famous for; one is a traditional seaside delicacy – ice cream. Walking down to the seafront from the town centre, Simeon passed a few benches dedicated in memory to local inhabitants. One, however, stood out above the others: In Loving Memory Of Tony Rossi Founder Of Southend’s Famous Ice Cream. Died 7th August 1977.

On the Western Esplanade, beach-goers can be found taking refreshment at the original Rossi’s Ice Cream parlour. The shop was founded in 1932 by the Italian immigrant Fioravanti Figliolini and has remained open ever since. The famous name Rossi came about when Figliolini joined forces with Tony Rossi, another Italian immigrant. Although Figliolini eventually took over the business, he kept the easy-to-remember name and spread the ice cream establishment to Weymouth in Devon. Unfortunately, this entrepreneur has been forgotten, whilst Toni Rossi receives all the accolades.

“The Pier is Southend, Southend is the Pier”
– Sir John Betjeman (1906-84)

Whilst Rossi may be popular, there is no doubt that Southend’s greatest attraction is the pier. At 1.34 miles (2.16 km), Southend Pier is the longest pleasure pier in the world. Due to its length, a train regularly transports people from one end to another, although it is possible to walk. Simeon decided he would much rather look at the pier from the beach than join the crowds on the decking. Due to it being October, and thus almost Halloween, the train had temporarily been transformed into a spooky ghost train.

Now a Grade II listed building, the construction of the current pier began in 1887 based on designs by James Brunlees (1816-92). Prior to that, a wooden pier had been in place since the 1830s, however, the growing influx of visitors from London took its toll on the oak-wood timber. The new pier was built with iron piles to make it a much sturdier and endurable structure.

In 1927, the pier was extended further in order to accommodate larger steamboats and was officially opened by Prince George, Duke of Kent (1902-42) on 8th July 1929. Ten years later, however, it was closed to the public and overtaken by the Royal Navy for use during the Second World War. The pier was renamed HMS Leigh and the seafront from Southend to Chalkwell was given the title HMS Westcliff.

Despite surviving the war, the pier has had a succession of disasters that threatened to destroy the world famous structure. In the late 1940s and 50s, many additions were made, including cafes and a theatre. Unfortunately, much of this was lost during a fire in 1959. Later, a fire in 1976 destroyed most of the pier head followed by another fire the very next year. Some of the ruins can still be seen at the very end of the pier.

In 1980, the pier was condemned, however, protests and a grant from the Historic Buildings Committee allowed the pier to be repaired. After two decades of success, the pier head was redeveloped to accommodate the growing number of visitors and a lifeboat station was opened, which features the RNLI museum.

Everything was going well until 2005 when another blaze destroyed almost half the pier. Fortunately, no one was hurt and a lot of the structure was able to be salvaged, allowing the pier to reopen to the public by the end of the year. Two years later, Southend Pier was voted Pier of the Year and continues to thrive to this very day.

Redevelopments since the last fire are still in progress and the public has been encouraged to help with an “Adopt a Plank” scheme. For £100, people can have their name engraved on a plaque on the pier and their money goes towards the funds for the redevelopment programme.

Whilst most people come to Southend for the sea, it is not the only geological feature, the entire landscape from Southend towards Benfleet is made up of tall and slightly unstable cliffs. Simeon’s tour of the area took him down the pedestrianised section of the cliff to the seafront then back up through the recently developed Cliff Gardens.

Although Simeon walked up the paved slopes, there is the option of using the famous Southend Cliff Railway, which operates during the summer months. Constructed in 1912 by Waygood and Company, the single car funicular takes 12 people at a time up and down the 57 ft (17m) cliff for a fare of 50p each way.

By walking up through the cliff gardens, the hard work and steadfast dedication to nature can be witnessed by the carefully cut grass and well-maintained flower beds. The development process began at the beginning of the 20th century, coinciding with the opening of the Southend Cliff Railway.

Features were gradually added to the garden until 1939 when it evolved into the layout that remains today. These gardens are an important example of an English seaside resort and continue to be one of the best-loved characteristics of Southend.

44625138_10214999828380602_1999576643751903232_nIn 1921, a war memorial was unveiled in memory of the 1338 men of Southend-on-Sea who lost their lives during the Great War. Designed by Sir Edward Lutyens (1869-1944), it features painted stone flags on either side of a tall column. On the grass in front of the memorial, slabs of paving stones spell out the words “Lest We Forget.”

The names of “our glorious dead” were recorded on a tablet in the refectory at Prittlewell Priory. Prittlewell was the original name of the village, the Southend area being at the “south end” of the village. Prittlewell Priory was established in the 12th century by monks of the Cluniac Order, later becoming a private residence after the dissolution of the monasteries under Henry VIII. Gradually, parts of the estate were sold off and developed into High Street and the terraces. With the arrival of the trains from London in the 19th century and a visit from Queen consort to George IV, Princess Caroline of Brunswick (1768-1821), the remains of the Priory’s land was quickly redeveloped, eventually becoming the seaside resort it is today.

The name Prittlewell is remembered in Prittlewell Square, the oldest park in Southend-on-Sea. The entrance is marked with a clock donated by a local jeweller and philanthropist Robert Arthur Jones (1849-1925), who was the last owner of Prittlewell Priory and was responsible for the selling of the majority of the land. Today, Prittlewell Square contains a pond surrounded by well-kept lawns. Along the circular pathway, benches are dedicated to lost loved ones who lived in the area.

Positioned high on the cliffs, overlooking the charming Cliff Gardens and views over the Thames Estuary are a number of different establishments. One is the Westcliff Hotel built in 1891 and still running today. Over time it has been popular with celebrities, such as Billy Connolly and the Chelsea Football team and, more recently, has become a venue for weddings. There is, however, an older, more famous hotel in the area.

After parts of Prittlewell Priory were sold off, the Royal Hotel and Terrace was constructed between 1791 and 1793, however, it got its name much later. As already mentioned, Princess Caroline visited the area in 1803, staying in terrace rooms numbers 7 to 9. The hotel was renamed in commemoration of her visit.

Shortly after, the life of Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson (1758-1805) was remembered in 1805 with a ball in his honour given by his mistress, Lady Emma Hamilton (1765-1815). The hotel was also used throughout the 19th century for special events and meetings, particularly by companies involved with the building of the pier and railway.

During the Second World War, the houses in the terrace were used as the headquarters of the Naval Control Service for the Organisation of Convoys. As a result, the hotel could no longer function and it was not until 1978 that it was fully restored to its former glory.

Another famous building upon the cliffs is the Cliffs Pavilion, which opened in 1964. Originally, a 500-seat art deco theatre was planned during the 1930s, however, the start of World War II put an end to its construction. Over a decade after the end of the war, construction began again but with very different plans. Today, the contemporary looking building contains a 1630-seat auditorium, bar and restaurant and puts on numerous plays and performances every year. Over the years, famous acts have included Paul McCartney, Oasis, Gloria Gaynor, The Drifters and Glen Campbell.

Further back from the cliff edge is a smaller but more intriguing theatre. The Clifftown Theatre, with a 150-seat auditorium, is located in a converted gothic church. The religious building was originally opened as a United Reformed Church in 1865 – a plaque on the side of the building from 1889 remembers the preacher and the architect, both whose surnames were Hamilton. Whilst the addition of a war memorial hall in the 1920s suggests the church initially flourished, it soon fell into desolation. After remaining empty for many years, it went under a four-year refurbishment, finally opening in 2008 as a state-of-the-art theatre. Since the Clifftown Theatre gave it a new purpose, the old church building has been awarded a Conservation Award from the Southend-on-Sea Borough Council Design Awards as a result of the “subtle integration into the street-scene, the intimate theatre space and the care taken to retain and record historic features”.

As Simeon discovered, Southend-on-Sea is much more than a seaside town to visit on sunny days. The area is steeped in history and is home to a wealth of naturally occurring features and marine life. Simeon’s two-mile round tour covered a large amount of Southend’s past and present, however, there is bound to be so much more out there to discover.

Whether you explore Southend via Treasure Trail, like Simeon, or come to relax on the beach, have a thrill in the fairground or have a shopping spree, you are guaranteed to experience one of the greatest natural seasides in Britain. No matter who you are or what you do, there is so much to discover if you are willing to look. Read the plaques around the town, look into the history of various buildings, walk along the quieter roads, what will you discover?

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For more information about Treasure Trails and the areas they cover, please visit their website.

Read more of Simeon’s adventures:
Amsterdam
Bloomsbury
Rainham Hall

 

Simeon and the Bloomsbury Treasures

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Simeon gears up for the trail with a cup of tea at Leon

Earlier this year, Simeon the red-haired gibbon (toffee-coloured, if you please) went on an adventure to Amsterdam. Ever since Simeon has had a strong urge to travel but never the opportunity. So, it was with great excitement and enthusiasm when Simeon was invited to take part in a Treasure Trail around the area of Bloomsbury in Greater London. The intrepid explorer spent the day traipsing around gardens and squares as well as admiring the statues and blue plaques of people associated with the area. Napping on the way home thoroughly exhausted, Simeon smiled in his sleep, looking forward to telling everyone he meets about the things he learnt in Bloomsbury.

Bloomsbury is an area within the London Borough of Camden and stretches from Euston Road to Holborn. Associated with art, education and medicine, Bloomsbury is home to many hospitals, including Great Ormond Street, as well as museums and educational establishments, such as the British Museum and the Senate House Library. It is also a fashionable residential area with many parks, squares and quiet places, which makes a change from the rest of the bustling city.

As Simeon discovered, many notable people have lived in Bloomsbury over the past few centuries, however, its origin dates back as far as the 13th century. In 1210, William de Blemond, a Norman landowner purchased the land, building himself a manor house on the property. The name Bloomsbury is derived from Blemondisberi, which means “manor of Blemond”.

For a long time, Bloomsbury remained a rural area, which was acquired by Edward III (1312-77) in the late 14th-century and passed on to the London Charterhouse Carthusian Monks. However, after the dissolution of the monasteries in the 16th-century, Henry VIII (1491-1547) granted it to Thomas Wriothesley, 1st Earl of Southampton (1505-50). The land was passed down the Wriothesley line until it reached the 4th Earl of Southampton (1607-67), who is responsible for the development of Bloomsbury Square. The majority of the urban district, however, was laid out by the property developer James Burton (1761-1837), who also lived in the area. He has been recorded as possibly the most significant builder of Georgian London and it is with thanks to him that Bloomsbury has become the place it is today.

Bloomsbury is particularly known for its magnificent green squares of which there are at least ten. Simeon, being only a little gibbon, did not have the time nor energy to explore them all, however, the ones he did visit left a favourable impression in his stuffed head.

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Russell Square Gardens

To begin the trail, Simeon started at Russell Square Underground Station where, a short walk to the left, lies Russell Square Gardens. This is one of the largest gardens in Bloomsbury and is named after the surname of the Dukes of Bedford who helped to develop the area. Initially laid out in 1804, the gardens are surrounded by large terraced houses, which were originally aimed at upper-middle-class families. Today, the gardens contain a fountain, which was installed in 2002 during a re-landscaping project to make the square look more like the original plans drawn out by the 18th-century landscaper, Humphry Repton (1752–1818).

Of course, Simeon could not go to Bloomsbury and not visit Bloomsbury Square, one of the earliest squares developed in London. Built in the 1660s and originally named Southampton Square after the 4th Earl of Southampton, the square now contains a small playground for young children, which includes a multicoloured roundabout that Simeon just had to try out.

Since 2011, Bloomsbury Square has become a physic garden with the help of 30 children from the Eleanor Palmer Primary School. In honour of Sir Hans Sloane (1660–1753), an Irish physician and naturalist, who lived in the area for half a century, the pupils planted a number of plants and flowers with medicinal properties that doctors used during the 17th-century. These include lavender, rosemary, milk thistle and sage.

Other well-known people also lived in the vicinity of Bloomsbury Square, including Isaac D’Israeli (1766-1848), a writer and scholar most famous for being the father of the British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli (1804-81). Another author who lived nearby, although only for a year (1902) was the American Gertrude Stein (1874-1946) whose best-known work is most probably The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas (1933).

A smaller garden, surrounded by the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery,  the Royal London Hospital for Integrated Medicine and Great Ormond Street Hospital, is titled Queen’s Square on account of the large statue of a queen standing at one end of the gardens. Mistakenly believed to be Queen Anne (1665-1714), the area was known as Queen Anne’s Square until the statue was identified as Queen Charlotte (1744-1818), the wife of George III (1738-1820). The king of Great Britain and Ireland was treated for mental illness in one of the buildings around Queen’s Square towards the end of his reign.

Like most squares built in the 18th-century, Queen’s Square was originally a fashionable area, popular with people such as Frances Reynolds (1729-1807), the sister of Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-92) of the Royal Academy of Art, however, a hundred years later, the place was mostly inhabited by refugees, diverse booksellers and charity organisations. With occupiers unable to afford the running costs of the mansions, the buildings were gradually converted into hospitals.

zeppelin-plaque-queens-squareOn the lawn towards the centre of the square is a concrete circle indicating where a Zeppelin bomb landed during the First World War. A plaque states that on the night of 8th September 1915, a bomb exploded on that very spot, whilst residents slept, unaware of the danger. Fortunately, no one was injured.

The British Museum is not the only notable museum in Bloomsbury; on the north side of Brunswick Square is the Foundling Museum, which tells the story of the Foundling Hospital set up by Thomas Coram (1668-1751) in 1741. The museum was established in 1998 and contains over 100 paintings, including those by  William Hogarth (1697-1764), Thomas Gainsborough (1727-88), Joshua Reynolds and Louis-Francois Roubiliac (1702-62). These artists, as well as many others, donated their work to the Hospital as a way of raising funds for the home for parentless children. Members of the public were allowed to view the artworks for a small fee, thus effectively becoming Britain’s first art gallery.

A grand statue of Thomas Coram sits outside the entrance to the museum, between the building and Brunswick Square, which was once land belonging to the hospital. The Square is a public garden approximately 3 acres in size and is popular with the wildlife, particularly birds. The three plane trees – one is predicted to be over 200 years old – contain bird boxes to encourage the feathered-friends to nest. Frequently seen are magpies, great tits, wrens, jays and a whole host of other birds.

Brunswick Square is named after, Caroline of Brunswick (1768-1821), the wife of George IV (1762-1830). She was the queen consort at the time the square was completed by James Burton in 1802, although she most likely did not have any personal association with the area.

Jane Austen (1775-1817) used Brunswick Square as the setting of Mr and Mrs John Knightley’s residence in her novel Emma (1815). This, of course, was a work of fiction, however, a number of famous faces have lived around the square since its conception. John Ruskin (1819-1900) the Victorian critic, for example, was born at 54 Hunter Street, Brunswick Square and E.M. Forster (1879-1970), famous for short stories such as A Room with a View (1908) and A Passage to India (1924) lived at number 26 during the 1930s.

On the north side, a few houses down from the Foundling Museum lived three members of the Bloomsbury Group: Virginia Woolf (1882-1941), Leonard Woolf (1880-1969) and Duncan Grant (1885-1978) during 1911-12. The Bloomsbury Group, named after the area the majority of members lived, was a group of English writers, artists and intellectuals who regularly met up during the early 20th-century. “The Bloomsberries promoted one another’s work and careers …”

Other artists and writers who lived around the square include John Leech (1817-64), the illustrator of several Charles Dickens novels, and J.M. Barrie (1860-1937), the author famous for creating Peter Pan. Charles Dickens (1812-70) lived nearby at 48 Doughty Street in a Georgian terraced house with his family from 1837 until 1839. although he only stayed here for a brief period of time, number 48 is open to the public in the form of the Charles Dickens Museum.

Further down the road from Brunswick Square is a large open space for children, which covers 7 acres of land that once belonged to the Foundling Hospital. This was the original site of the Hospital until the 1920s when it was relocated. The site was due to be developed to match the rest of the urban area, however, Harold Harmsworth, 1st

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Simeon stuck in the railings at Coram’s Field. Serves him right for trespassing!

Viscount Rothermere (1868-1940) had a vision of the area being converted into a safe place for children to play and donated a generous amount of money to the project. Appropriately titled Coram’s Field after the founder of the Foundling Hospital who made many children’s lives better, the park is still very popular with youngsters today.

Inside the iron gates are a large children’s playground, sand pits, and a duck pond. There are also places for parents to sit, such as a cafe, whilst they are accompanying their children. No person over the age of 16 may enter the premises without a child, thus making it a safe place for children to be children. Simeon was disappointed that he could not enter for, although he is only young, he did not count as a child!

Simeon’s tour of Bloomsbury went from one square to the next, however, in-between each one, the wide-eyed gibbon noticed many statues and blue plaques on houses belonging to some very famous names. Already mentioned are the statues of Thomas Coram and Queen Charlotte, but there are a few others worthy of note. Situated near Charlotte in Queen’s Square is a bust of Lord Wolfson of Marylebone (1927-2010). This was erected shortly after his death to mark his success as a businessman and philanthropist. Leonard Wolfson, who was knighted in 1977, was the chairman of the Wolfson Foundation established by his father. The charity awards grants to support the fields of science and medicine, health, education and the arts and humanities. It is only appropriate, therefore, that he be remembered in the presence of a few of the establishments he helped.

Simeon was intrigued to discover a statue of a cat in the Alf Barrett Playground hidden away on Old Gloucester Street. The cat, named Humphry, sits facing a bench dedicated to his maker, Marcia Stolway (1958-92). Humphry was the name of the cat that frequented the Mary Ward Centre in Queen’s Square where Marcia studied sculpture. Originally, the statue of Humphry the ginger cat was placed in Queen’s Square but it felt more appropriate for him to be by the children’s playground around people more likely to appreciate him. Sadly, Marcia died in 1992 at the age of 34 after suffering for a while from epilepsy. Humphry died the very same year, therefore, the statue and bench honour two remarkable characters from the area.

It is difficult to note all of the famous people who have ever lived in Bloomsbury because there have been and continue to be so many. English Heritage blue plaques appear on almost every street, revealing who lived there. Charles Dickens had a plaque outside his house, now a museum, and further down the road, a plaque exposed the former residence of Charlotte Mew (1869-1928), a Victorian poet. Also in Doughty Street, Vera Brittain (1883-1970) an English Voluntary Aid Detachment nurse and Winifred Holtby (1898-1935), a feminist writer both lived at 52. Around the corner, another plaque marks the house in which Hilda Doolittle (1886-1961), an American poet, once stayed.

Other notable names from the area include Vanessa Bell (1879-1961), Virginia Woolf’s sister; Randolph Caldecott (1846-88), illustrator; Charles Darwin (1809-82); Dorothy L. Sayers (1893-1957), novelist; and William Butler Yeats (1865-1939), poet. Some people only stayed for a fleeting visit to Bloomsbury, such as Bob Marley (1945-81), who stayed 6 months, and Vladimir Ilych Lenin (1870-1924), who lived there in 1908. Of course, there have been celebrities in more recent years, including Ricky Gervais (b1961) and Catherine Tate (b1968).

40025974_2186415471615923_6074413791951454208_nIf Simeon were to have a favourite of all the blue plaques, it would be the one revealing the residence of “The White Rabbit”. Whether or not Simeon realises this is not a real rabbit still remains unconfirmed but the codename belonged to the secret agent Wing Commander Forest Frederick Edward Yeo-Thomas (1902-64) who was a British Special Operations Executive agent in the Second World War. After his successful war work, Yeo-Thomas was invited to be one of the important witnesses at the Nuremberg War Trials and Buchenwald Trial. Following a successful career and being awarded the George Cross amongst several other medals, Yeo-Thomas, unfortunately, succumbed to a brain haemorrhage at the age of 62. It was not until 2010 that his London flat was recognised by an English Heritage blue plaque but, from now on, everyone who passes will know of “The White Rabbit” and his importance in the war.

Simeon came to the end of his trail satisfied that he had discovered the Bloomsbury Treasures. It is amazing to discover how much history can be contained in one area. The trail was created by Treasure Trails who provide a series of clues and directions that take you around Bloomsbury and make people look more closely at their surroundings. Providing a fun and educational day out, Treasure Trails have over 1000 trails for places all over Britain. Like Simeon, prepare to be amazed by interesting knowledge and details that usually get overlooked. Treasure Trails can be purchased online from their website for £6.99 and are suitable for children and adults.

“Where will my next adventure take me?” Simeon wonders. Hopefully, he will find out in the not so distant future.

Bloomsbury Treasures

 

Exploring​ London the Fun Way

36267457_10214211559874382_7551268224013172736_nSir Christopher Wren’s St Paul’s Cathedral is one of the most iconic buildings in the City of London. Recognised throughout the world by its impressive dome, tourists flock to stand in front of or even go inside to explore the famous cathedral. Crowds gather in the churchyard to sit and rest or eat picnics on a nice day but how many people take notice of the history around them? St Paul’s may be a huge tourist attraction, however, there is so much more to see hidden within the surrounding streets.

To begin with, there are many things worthy of note in the vicinity of the cathedral. Opposite the steps to St Paul’s stands a plinth with a statue of Queen Anne (1665-1714), the first monarch of Great Britain. As many people are aware, St Paul’s Cathedral burnt down during the Great Fire of London in 1666 and was rebuilt using Wren’s designs soon after. The building was completed during Anne’s reign, therefore, it is for this reason that a statue of the Queen was erected here to commemorate the completion of Saint Paul’s Cathedral in 1712. What visitors to St Paul’s see today is not the original statue by Francis Bird (1667-1731) but a replica that was put in place in 1886 after the first version started deteriorating.

Surrounding the statue of Queen Anne are four female figures to represent Britannia, France, America and Ireland, four countries that the newly established Great Britain had some control over. The reason for the railings which surround the entire sculpture is supposed to prevent anyone from damaging the statues, something which an Indian sailor managed to do in 1769.

 

By entering the churchyard, a number of other statues can be discovered, most famously the St Paul’s Cross. This is a column mounted with a gilded statue of St Paul to mark the location of the original St Paul’s Cross. The original, however, was not a column but a place for religious gatherings and news reports. It was first used in approximately 1191 and continued to draw a crowd until 1643. During the Reformation, William Tyndale’s (1494-1536) New Testament was burnt by Catholics at the site because it was in English. At other times, many other protests involving public opinion occurred here and it became a place to publicly preach the Christian faith.

On the other side of St Paul’s Churchyard is a bronze statue of John Wesley (1703-91), the theologian, cleric and co-founder of Methodism. Depicted wearing a cassock and holding a Bible, the statue is 5’1″, the exact height Wesley was during his life. Although St Paul’s Cathedral is not a Methodist building, the statue has been placed here to commemorate the changes Wesley brought to the British Christian faith and acknowledges that he used the nearby Chancel of the Cathedral for worship.

 

Whilst it may be tempting to stay and relax in St Paul’s churchyard, there are a number of other small parks to visit nearby. On the opposite side of the road sit Carter Lane Gardens, which were improved and made pedestrian friendly in 2006. Although it may be noisy because it is situated on the carriageway between Godliman Street and New Change, it is full of flower gardens, lawns and seating. It is also the site of the City of London Information Centre where tourists can buy guides or ask for directions.

Close by, at the top of St Peter’s Hill, is the National Firefighters Memorial depicting three bronze fireman in action, wearing the typical uniform of the 1940s. It is a comparatively new statue that was commissioned by the Firefighters Memorial Charitable Trust which was unveiled by the Queen Mother in 1991. Initially, the memorial was for the men and women who lost their lives fighting the fires caused by the Blitz in WWII when the city was attacked by bombs for 57 consecutive nights. Later, it was decided that the memorial would honour all firefighters throughout the UK who had been killed whilst doing their duty. The names of the 1,192 heroes were inscribed on plaques surrounding the monument in September 2003.

 

On the same side of the road as and a mere stone’s throw away from the cathedral is the award-winning Festival Gardens. Created in 1951 by Sir Albert Richardson (1880-1964), the sunken lawns and water feature were established to tidy up the damage caused by the war. It was once the site of Cordwainers Hall, where shoemakers practised their trade as well as a number of other halls at various points in history.

Hidden in the shade of the trees is a recent statue depicting the bust of the poet John Donne (1572-1631) who once lived across the road on Bread Street. It was commissioned by the City of London in memory of Donne’s devotional poems, particularly Good Friday, 1613, Riding Westward from which words have been extracted and inscribed below the bust: “Hence is’t, that I am carried towards the West/This day, when my Soul’s form bends to the East”

Famed for his poems and coined phrases, such as “No man is an island” and “For whom the bell tolls”, Donne was also a priest and preacher who worked at St Paul’s during the early 17th century. It is for this reason that the first public memorial to Donne was placed in this location.

Whilst visiting the Festival Gardens, it is worth crossing New Change and entering Watling Street. So narrow that it is almost inaccessible to cars, Watling Street was once an ancient Briton trackway between Canterbury and St. Albans. Later, after the invasion of the Romans, the road was extended as far South as Dover, through London, and all the way to Wroxeter in Shropshire. Today, many parts of Watling Street are still used, however, have been diverted or converted into more car-friendly roads, for instance, the A2 and the A5.

 

Those who visit St Paul’s Cathedral because of their passion for history, art or architecture will be interested in visiting the Guildhall Yard on Gresham Street. The Guildhall has been used as a town hall for hundreds of years and is currently the ceremonial and administrative centre of the City of London. Occasionally, the yard will be out of access due to royal events, however, the majority of the time it is open to the public. The courtyard itself is paved over but has a circular line running across the flagstones, indicating the position of the Roman amphitheatre, which lies beneath the ground.

A section of the Roman amphitheatre can be seen for free via the basement of the Guildhall Art Gallery on the righthand side of the courtyard. The art gallery was built in 1885 as a place to contain the art collections from the City of London Corporation. Today, the gallery rotates the 4000-piece strong collection, showing 250 paintings at a time. The majority of these paintings represent London, however, there are some from the Victorian era, including the Pre-Raphaelites.

On the façade of the Guildhall Art Gallery are four busts of well-known Englishmen: Oliver Cromwell, Christopher Wren, William Shakespeare and Samuel Pepys. Each of these men contributed significantly to the history of the city and have rightfully been commemorated. Without them, the City of London would not be what it is today.

On the opposite side of the yard is grade 1 listed Baroque church, St Lawrence Jewry, the official church of the Lord Mayor of London. Like St Paul’s Cathedral, this church was destroyed in the Great Fire of London and rebuilt by Sir Christopher Wren (1632-1723). It is believed that before it became a Church of England, St Thomas Moore, the Lord High Chancellor during the reign of Henry VIII, preached on the site.

 

Those who prefer a quieter place to sit and escape the hustle and bustle of the city should head to the Brewers’ Hall Gardens in Aldelmanbury Square. Situated behind Brewers’ Hall, there are a number of benches and flowerbeds, popular with office workers who want a peaceful lunch before heading back inside.

The original Brewers’ Hall was built in 1420, making the Brewers one of the first Guilds to have a Hall of their own. As with many buildings in this area, the Hall also succumbed to the flames in 1666 and was rebuilt in 1673. Unfortunately, the Blitz saw off the second Hall in 1940. The present Hall has been safely in place since 1960, along with the small garden.

In 1971, the gardens became home to a gardener, a life-size bronze statue by Karin Jonzen (1914-98). The male figure is on his knees, touching the ground in front of him as though tending to a plant. Jonzen was commissioned to produce the sculpture as a tribute to all the unseen gardeners around the city who tend to the many parks and green areas.

 

London is full of different memorials, some already mentioned, and there is yet another in a park not too far away from St Paul’s Cathedral. Postman’s Park, the site of the former headquarters of the General Post Office, was opened in 1880 on the original churchyard of St Botolph’s Aldersgate. Since 1900, however, the park has become famous for the Memorial to Heroic Self-Sacrifice established by the artist George Frederick Watts (1817-1904) to commemorate the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria.

The memorial commemorates ordinary people who died saving the lives of others who otherwise would have been forgotten. A wall of 54 ceramic tablets with names and dates from 1863 to 2007 state the heroic acts and circumstances of death. Examples include Mary Rogers who gave up her lifebelt on a sinking ship, Alice Ayres who save three children from a burning house at the cost of her own life, and Leigh Pitt who saved a drowning boy from the canal at Thamesmead but drowned himself.

It is difficult to believe that less than a hundred years ago the area around St Paul’s Cathedral was a bomb site, completely pulverized by the enemy during the Blitz. So many buildings were destroyed, it is a wonder that the cathedral remained standing. To the north of St Paul’s is the current location of the London Stock Exchange and an urban development plaza, owned by the Mitsubishi Estate Co. Named Paternoster Square from the Latin pater noster, meaning “our Father”, thus connecting it with the nearby place of worship, it replaces the demolished Paternoster Row, home to the centre of the London publishing trade pre-World War II.

The redevelopment took place during the 1960s and two decades later became popular with many investment banks. The paved square is surrounded by restaurants and cafes, making it the go-to place for many office staff at lunchtime. Yet, like most places in the area, it also houses a couple of monuments.

The most important, unmissable monument in Paternoster Square is the 75 ft (23m) tall Paternoster Square Column. Often confused with the Monument to the Great Fire of London near London Bridge, this column was erected in memory of both the fire of 1666 and the devastation of 1940 in this particular area. Made of Portland stone, it is a Corinthian-style column topped with a gold leaf covered flaming copper urn. Although it looks similar to the age-old monuments around the city, it has a fairly modern usage. The plinth contains ventilation shafts for the car park hidden underneath the square.

On the opposite side of the square is a bronze Paternoster sculpted by Dame Elisabeth Frink (1930-93) in 1975. Also known as the Shepherd and Sheep, it was commissioned by Trafalgar House in memory of Newgate Market, which once stood in Paternoster Row where farmers sold their livestock. Incidentally, Paternoster Square is situated very near to the old site of Newgate Prison, which existed from 1188 until 1902.

Upon the side of one of the office buildings and easily missed by those hurrying by is a sculptural piece of steelwork that functions as a sundial. Rather than telling the exact time, the dial indicates the month of the year as well as the Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter equinoxes. Within each months’ section are 28-31 notches to indicate the day, which the tip of the shadow moves across as the sun rises and sets. There are also small notches that the shadow passes at midday. Erected in 2003, it remains in perfect condition and is an amazing invention.

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Temple Bar

In order to return to St Paul’s from Paternoster Square, people must walk under an ornamental gateway named Temple Bar. It was once the principal ceremonial entrance to the City of London on the western side and is attributed to Sir Christopher Wren. In 2004, the structure was moved and repositioned at the entrance to Paternoster Square. Like the memorial in the middle of the square, Temple Bar is also made from Portland Stone

The number of places, statues and so forth that can be found in the vicinity of St Paul’s, both ancient and modern, is astonishing. Tourists make a beeline for the Cathedral and dismiss everything else as modern offices and unimportant buildings. However, by taking the time to look carefully, a whole wealth of history can be uncovered. Away from the busy roads are small alleyways with interesting establishments and quiet retreats away from the bustling city workers and sightseers.

Personally, I had the chance to discover these historical and urban sites with the aid of a treasure map produced by Treasure Trails. The trail challenges explorers between the ages of 6 and 106 to follow a set of clues to locate where some (fictional) long-lost treasure may be buried. The directions lead to all sorts of places that are often overlooked, such as statues, plaques on buildings, road signs, pubs and so forth. It is a fantastic way of learning more about the city without the need for a local guide or expensive book. At £6.99 per trail, it is a wonderful and enjoyable way to spend a couple of hours.

Whether you explore the city by yourself or opt for the fun-filled treasure trail, there is so much to discover around St Paul’s Cathedral. From historical monuments to more recent developments, there are a number of interesting things to locate and appreciate. Regardless of how you go about exploring, here is a piece of advice: always remember to look up!

Certificate - St Pauls

St Katharine Docks & the Tower

“I’ve been walking about London for the last thirty years, and I find something fresh in it every day.”

–          Walter Besant, on his deathbed, 1901

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Tower Hill Underground

Built on the former Tower of London station and originally named Marks Gate, Tower Hill Underground Station is one of London’s popular destinations for tourists. With over 20 million people going through the ticket gates every year, Tower Hill sits opposite the Tower of London and is a short walk from the famous Tower Bridge. Within a few metres of the largest remaining segment of the Roman London Wall, since 1967 Tower Hill has been the stop to go to in order to begin exploring the historic City of London.

Taking into account the number of cameras and selfie-sticks seen in the vicinity, most tourists are satisfied by seeing and photographing themselves in from of the legendary buildings. Regardless as to whether visitors are willing to pay the price to enter the castle or Tower Bridge Exhibition, they are undoubtedly the objects of most people’s trips to the area. Yet, there is so much more to discover, it is just a case of knowing what to look out for and what is worth exploring.

Tower Hill falls under the London Borough of Tower Hamlets which in turn covers the majority of the East End. Although named due to its association with the Tower of London, the borough includes Canary Wharf, the Isle of Dogs, a section of the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park, and the West India Docks. From Tower Hill station, it is only a short walk to a part of the old commercial docklands, now mostly privatised, St Katharine Docks.

St Katharine Docks took its name from the former hospital and cemetery, St Katharine’s of the Tower, which was built on this site during the 12th century by Matilda of Boulogne, the wife of King Stephen. The medieval hospital was demolished in the early 19th century to make way for a £2 million dockyard development designed by the Scottish engineer Thomas Telford (1757-1834). Unlike some of the other docks, Telford insisted that the warehouses be built as close to the water as possible in order to limit the amount of activity on the quayside. This explains the narrow passageways between buildings and the riverside.

Unfortunately, the new docks were not able to accommodate the typically large ships that brought goods to London, therefore St Katharine Docks mainly handled luxury commodities, for instance, tea. Although tea may not seem much of a luxury product today, the limited methods of transport meant it was a lot more difficult to ship the leaves from Asia to Europe than it is today.

The docks were targetted by the Germans during the Second World War, leaving most of the warehouses in ruins and any hope of continuing to trade there impossible. Until the 1960s, St Katharine Docks was mostly left in a derelict state, but gradually it was developed into a leisure region and residential estate. Now referred to as a marina, the docks are used to moor privately owned boats and yachts. The quayside also contains cafes, restaurants, shops and a hotel, making it an upmarket division within the Docklands.

Despite the destruction caused by the war, one warehouse remained standing. Originally built in 1858, Ivory House, so named for the vast loads of ivory that were stored there, now accommodates a parade of shops, restaurants and luxury apartments. Although the original warehouse also received rare commodities such as perfume and wine, ivory was its primary product.

London of the nineteenth century was the main importer of ivory – more than anywhere else in the world. Approximately, 500 tonnes of ivory was imported to the capital each year, 200 of which was stored in Ivory House at one time. It is estimated that this would have been the equivalent of 4000 elephants. The ivory was either shipped off to workshops in other countries or sent to craftsmen in London to be transformed into piano keys and billiard balls.

Despite Ivory House being the only remaining warehouse of the original docks, it is not the oldest building. Located on the opposite side of Marble Quay – a small section of St Katharine Docks – stands a beautiful building containing the most popular pub on the River Thames: The Dickens’ Inn. Formerly functioning as the King’s Brewery back in the 1740s, the building was originally situated further down the docks.

When works began on St Katharine Docks in the 1960s, a gradual process of repairing the war damage, the original building of The Dickens’ Inn was airlifted from one site to its new location. It was hoped that its prominent position on Marble Quay would help to attract tourism to the area.

The inn was opened in May 1976 and has, hence its name, great connections with the illustrious London author, Charles Dickens (1812-70). The pub, which also functions as a grill and pizzeria, was formally opened to the public by none other than Cedric Charles Dickens, the great grandson of the famous writer. The young Dickens believed that his great grandfather would have loved the inn, especially as many of his characters and books were set around similar areas of London.

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Davies BR. London 1843, Publisher: Chapman & Hall, 186 Strand, London, Nov. 1, 1843.

St Katharine Docks is divided into sections that retain their original names. There are three subdivisions of the docks that are separated by quays and bridges. They are aptly titled East Dock, West Dock and Central Basin.

The names of each quay hint at the usage of the docks, providing a ghost of London’s memory and the action it must have seen in this area. Commodity Quay, Marble Quay and The City Quay give some indication of the shipments received there and the potential bustling of each location.

There are also references to people and events that date further back than the existence of the docks. As mentioned, St Katharine was the name of the hospital that originally stood on this site, therefore passages such as St Katharine’s Way make complete sense. However, on the north east side of the docks, lies Thomas More Street, which without any historical context, is a rather curious choice of name.

This area of London has many references to a man named Sir Thomas More (1478-1535). He was a speaker of the House of Commons and Chancellor to the Duchy of Lancaster, later becoming Lord Chancellor. The reign of Henry VIII produced great changes to the Christian faith with the development of the Church of England. Unfortunately, More’s strong religious beliefs prevented him from accepting Henry as the head of the church and, therefore, was imprisoned in the Tower and eventually beheaded. Sir Thomas More put God before the king and became a Catholic Martyr. In 1935, Pope Pius XI canonised More, and, in more recent years, Pope John Paul II proclaimed him the “heavenly Patron of Statesmen and Politicians.”

Dotted around St Katharine Docks are historical items and modern sculptures that turn the area into a miniature outdoor museum. Although so easy to walk past without paying the slightest bit of attention, the docks have so much to offer if only one is willing to take the time to appreciate them. For posterity, many of the original bollards used for mooring ships have been retained sporting the words “St Katharine by the Tower” around the edge of the circular top. In the centre, a human figure sporting a halo and sword is depicted next to a ship’s wheel. This is a portrayal of Saint Katharine, a daughter of an Alexandrian King. After converting to Christianity, Katharine refused to sacrifice to the gods of the empire, even after being ordered to do so by Emperor Maximinus. As punishment, Katharine was sentenced to death by being broken on a wheel.

Another historical item located in St Katharine Docks is a large anchor that sits at the mouth of one of the footbridges around the Central Basin. Not much information is offered about the anchor, however, a plaque nearby states “Anchor salvaged from Dutch merchantman ‘AMSTERDAM’ which foundered off Hastings 200 years ago.” Two hundred years before the date that the anchor was put on display would place the sinking of the ship during the period that St Katharine Docks was being put to good use. Presumably, the Amsterdam was a ship that frequented the docks, hence the relevance of its recovered anchor.

Modern sculptures interspersed amongst the old help to bring the docks into the late twentieth and twenty-first century. Some of these depict different animals from elephants to different types of birds. The most impressive, however, is situated just outside the entrance to St Katharine Docks, on the opposite side of the Tower Thistle Hotel, which separates the docks from the main body of the Thames. This statue is titled Girl With a Dolphin.

Sculpted in 1973 by David Wynne (1929-2014), Girl With a Dolphin also functions as a fountain, the water emitting in an upwards stream between the two characters. Wynne was mostly interested in sculpting animals and was excellent at portraying movement in his work. In this instance, it appears the figure of a girl is flying above the jumping dolphin unsupported by anything beneath her. It is a snapshot of a very brief moment in time.

The riverside area contains a few other attractions including another anchor and an eighteenth-century cannon. Between these two relics is another modern sculpture reminiscent of the dock’s past. Produced by Wendy Taylor (b.1945) in 1973, Timepiece is a huge sundial made up of a larger-than-life washer and needle. The chains that support the slanted sculpture are comparable with the chains attached to anchors used on the merchant ships that visited the area.

One more relic of the past can be found on the Central Basin side of the Tower Thistle Hotel. Here, a crane, known as a jigger, is attached to a wall in a similar fashion to the way it would have been fastened to the wall of a warehouse. Using Hydraulic Power, these jiggers, developed by William Armstrong (1810-1900) in the mid-nineteenth century, would hoist cargo in and out of boats and barges.

The most obscure feature exhibited within St Katharine Docks is a giant crown sculpted in the area by Arthur Fleischmann (1896-1990). The almost 11′ long block of Perspex, weighing two tons, is the largest block of Acrylic in the world. It was produced for Stanley Kubrick’s film 2001 – A Space Odyssey (1968) but was rejected by the director. Fleischmann, who was known for working with plastics, acquired the unwanted block and used it to sculpt a crystal crown that he was commissioned to produce for the Queen’s Silver Jubilee in 1977. Originally, the crown was displayed in an open-aired rotunda titled Coronarium Chapel until it moved to the wall of the building opposite in 2000. The rotunda is now a Starbucks.

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Tower Bridge letting the Dixie Queen pass through

Along the quayside past the Girl with a Dolphin is one of the best spots to view Tower Bridge. The bridge is the most iconic structure in London and has stood proudly in place since 1894. Originally powered by hydraulics before switching to electricity and oil in the 1970s, the lower section of the bridge can be raised to let passing boats through. If you are lucky, you may see it in action.

Continuing along the quayside in the direction of Tower Hill provides a whole host of things to look at. There are more sculptures and interesting architecture, benches made of mosaics, bright blue lamp posts and so forth. As the path goes past the Tower of London, information boards appear with information about the various sections that can be seen from the river. The most famous, and therefore most popular, part of the castle is Traitor’s Gate, which can be seen equally as well from the outside as it can by the people who have paid to go inside. Without paying a penny, enough information is provided to be able to learn a few fascinating historical facts.

Nearby the souvenir shop outside the Tower of London entrance is a small cylindrical structure that at first glance appears to serve no purpose. This was once an entrance to the former Tower Subway constructed in 1869 which took passengers through a tunnel under the River Thames – the first of its kind in London.

It is amazing how much history can be found in one location and there is still far more than those already mentioned. Nearby the Tower Hill station entrance is Trinity Square Gardens, which contains a number of memorials to those who fought and died for Britain and Commonwealth countries. A vaulted corridor contains the names of Navy members who went missing at sea during the First World War. A sunken garden contains the names of those who suffered the same fate in the Second World War.

It is not only the wars that Trinity Square Gardens pays homage to; indicated by a small plaque is the location of the scaffold where more than 125 people were executed, including the above mentioned Sir Thomas More.

“To commemorate the tragic history and in many cases the martyrdom of those who for the sake of their faith, country or ideals staked their lives and lost.

On this site more than 125 were put to death. The names of some of whom are recorded here.”

Who knew that a visit to Tower Hill could provide such an extensive and detailed look at the history of London? It is not possible to take everything in during one day and future visits will unearth even more wonders. Climbing up to the observation platform above the underground station entrance provides a fantastic view of the castle. Centred in the middle is a large sundial that (on sunny days) tells the time whilst simultaneously explaining the history of London with a decorative timeline around the edge of the dial. Going as far back as the first century AD, it chronologically reveals the most significant events of the past leading up to the present era.

More details about the history of London can be found in the underpasses and subways that lead towards St Katharine Docks. Artist, Stephen B. Whatley, was commissioned by the Historic Royal Palaces and The Pool of London Partnership in 1999 to produce thirty paintings that explain the history of the Tower of London. These can be viewed in the Tower Hill Underpass. The Tower Bridge Approach Subway contains different information including particulars about St Katherine’s Hospice.

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Tower Hill Underpass – looking north

With so much more to find, Tower Hill deserves another trip. This goes to show how wonderfully interesting London is and underlines the idea that some of the best things in life are free. Wherever you are in London, keep your eyes wide open; you never know what you may discover.

Special thanks to Treasure Trails for providing such an in-depth self-guided tour of St Katharine Docks with an exciting Treasure Hunt game. Take a look at their website for more information about the trail. (Other areas are available.)

Treasures of Trafalgar Square

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Photo by DAVID ILIFF. License: CC-BY-SA 3.0

Trafalgar Square is one of the most popular tourist interests in Central London, attracting well over one million people per year. Surrounded by museums, galleries and historic buildings, the public square is continually travelled through as sightseers make their way from place to place. Containing numerous statues, there are plenty of photographic opportunities for selfies or group pictures as well as the chance to witness a diverse selection of street performance.

With so much to offer, how much do visitors gain from their visit to Trafalgar Square? Apart from the lions and the acclaimed Nelson’s Column, a lot goes unappreciated or even unnoticed. By stepping back from the crowds and taking the time to look around you – up high, down low and side to side – you will discover the history and wonders of the dynamic location.

Trafalgar Square was developed by the architect John Nash (1752-1835) in the early 1800s. After its completion, the new square was officially christened Trafalgar Square in 1830 to commemorate the victory at the infamous Battle of Trafalgar a quarter of a century earlier. Some tourists are frequently confused by the name and incorrectly assume that the battle against Napoleon took place in this very square. The British Naval victory was earned at Cape Trafalgar on the coast of Spain, in which the Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson lost his life.

In 1843, a bronze statue of Nelson was erected on top of a 145 ft Corinthian column designed by the English architect William Railton (1800-77); a tremendous monument in honour of the war-hero. The bronze lions on the pedestal below, sculpted by Edwin Henry Landseer (1802-73), were added thirty years later to stand guard around the column.

Nelson, literally and figuratively, overshadows all the other statues and plinths around the square and, unless time is taken to study them carefully, many remain unaware of who they represent and the significance of their position. Over the years, several sculptures have been erected (and even removed from) Trafalgar Square and they are worth having a look at.

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Jacobus Secundus, Photograph by Prioryman

To the left of the entrance to the National Gallery, stands a particularly old bronze statue. Originally erected in the Palace of Whitehall in 1686, King James II stands in a Contrapposto pose (hips and legs twisted away from the position of the head and shoulders) sculpted to resemble a Roman emperor. With right hand outstretched, it is believed that the King, or Jacobus Secundus as the plinth states, once held a baton, which is now missing.  The rest of the plinth, when translated from the Latin, reads “by the grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland. Defender of the Faith. 1686.”

In the top right-hand corner of the square sits an equestrian statue of another king of England. Cast two years before George IV’s death in 1830, his statue depicts him in ancient Roman garments – possibly an attempt at resembling a Roman emperor similarly to James II – and was originally intended for the top of Marble Arch when it was used as the entrance to Buckingham Palace. Temporarily placed upon a plinth in Trafalgar Square, it has remained there ever since, although the inscription below was only added in the late 19th-century once his flattering features were no longer recognised by the public.

The most interesting thing about the George IV statue designed by Sir Francis Leggatt Chantrey (1781-1841) is that he is riding with no stirrups. Whether it was intentional to depict the king bareback riding or an oversight of the sculptor remains unknown.

There is another equestrian statue in Trafalgar Square on the opposite side, near Whitehall. Older than both James II and George IV, the statue was cast in the 1630s by Hubert Le Sueur (1580-1658), a French sculptor, in honour of Charles I. Dressed in armour typical of the era, the King sits proudly on his horse who has its right front leg raised as if walking.

Those who know their English royal history will wonder how the statue survived after the execution of Charles I. The bronze figure was sent to a metalsmith in Holborn along with instructions to melt it down, however, the smithy secretly hid the statue instead. When the royal family was restored to the throne, it was rediscovered and placed in Trafalgar Square in 1675, on the original location of one of the Eleanor crosses.

The Eleanor cross that stood in Trafalgar Square was destroyed during the civil war, however, a replica was produced in 1865 in front of Charing Cross railway station, where it still stands today. The Eleanor crosses were ornately decorated monuments adorned with a cross commissioned by Edward I in memoriam of his beloved wife. Each cross was positioned at the site her coffin lay overnight as it made its twelve-day journey from Lincoln to London before finally being buried in Westminster Abbey. Charing Cross was the final stop and therefore the most elaborate of the twelve monuments.

Victorian sculptor, Thomas Earp (1829-93), constructed the replica cross from designs by E. M. Barry (1830-80), an architect famed for his work in Covent Garden. Using Aberdeen granite, Earp expertly carved the decorative monument, including a statue of Eleanor of Castile standing towards the very top.

 

There are a number of other statues located in Trafalgar Square, and there are even more located nearby within short walking distance. When visiting the square, there is so much to see in the surrounding areas, for example, the Eleanor cross, that could so easily be missed by tourists. Diagonally across from the north-east corner of the square, opposite the entrance to the National Portrait Gallery stands a monument to the British nurse, Edith Cavell. Working in Brussels when the First World War broke out in 1914, Edith nursed hundreds of soldier regardless of which army they came from. She also helped some 200 Allied soldiers escape from German occupation.

Unfortunately, Edith Cavell was caught and arrested by German soldiers, found guilty of treason and shot by a firing squad on 12th October 1915. Her remains were brought home after the war, her bravery earning her a state funeral at Westminster Abbey.

Sir George Frampton (1860-1928) constructed the modern-looking, ten-foot marble statue of the British nurse standing on a granite pedestal. Inscribed below are the words “Edith Cavell // Brussels // Dawn // October 12th 1915 // Patriotism is not enough // I must have no hatred or // bitterness for anyone.” The monument was unveiled by Queen Alexandra in 1920 and, since 2014, it received a Grade 1 listing.

Another statue to look out for in the area is the Royal Marines Memorial installed on the north side of The Mall. Created at the beginning of the 20th-century, the memorial honours those who lost their lives during the Boxer Rebellion in China (1899-1901) and the Second Boer War in Africa (1899-1902).

To get to the Royal Marine Memorial from Trafalgar Square, the pavement takes you under Admiralty Arch. This is just one of the many historic structures that surround the square. The Grade 1 listed triumphal arch was commissioned by Edward VII in memory of his long reigning mother, Queen Victoria. Initially used as a residence for the First Sea Lord and Chief of Naval Staff, the arch became government offices at the beginning of the millennium. The neoclassical arch is now in the hands of property developers who intend to reopen it as a luxury hotel in 2020.

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Admiralty Arch

London, being steeped in history, has countless plaques around the city commemorating certain events, past and present buildings, notable people and so forth. Although buildings have been demolished, plaques provide information about the past to prevent history from disappearing entirely. On the ground by the Charles I statue is a metal sign explaining that it was once the site of the Eleanor cross. On the railings in front of Charing Cross Station is another plaque with a lengthy description of the design and construction of the replica. Nearby is another sign recording details of a violent storm that occurred in 1987.

It is quite surprising the places that memorial plaques can be found. In St Martin’s Street, little more than an alley way, behind the National Gallery, is a sizable memorial of the 16th century Hampton Site. The information inscribed on the stone explains that the site used to belong to Hamptons furniture store which was flattened by bombs in 1940. Later, in 1959, the government acquired the demolished area allowing the National Gallery to expand. Thus, the Sainsbury Wing was born.

Plenty of tourists take photographs outside the entrances to the National and National Portrait Gallery even if they do not venture inside (although, judging by the crowds, most do!), however, it is not a common thought to look behind the buildings. By continuing along St Martin’s Street and turning right into Orange Street, a small Congregational Church is located sporting more historical information. According to historians, the former resident of the building next door was none other than the mathematician, Sir Isaac Newton.

Orange Street Congregational Church: This church was founded in 1693 by Huguenot refugees who fled from France at the time of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. In 1776 the Chapel passed into the hands of the Church of England. The Rev. Augustus III. Toplady author of “Rock of Ages” was one of its ministers. The Chapel passed into the hands of the Congregationalists in 1787. Adjoining the chapel was Sir Isaac Newton’s house which was built in 1710 and condemned in 1913. Mrs Jemima Luke, author of the beloved hymn “I think when we read that sweet story of old” was a teacher in the Sunday School. A copy of the hymn in her own handwriting is in possession of the church.

When exploring, always remember to look up. Approaching the National Portrait Gallery from Orange Street allows the building’s architecture to be seen in a new light. Above the highly positioned windows are sculpted busts that are easily missable from ground level. Sculpted along with the three founders of the gallery are fifteen illustrious portrait painters, writers and historians, notably: Horace Walpole, Hans Holbein the Younger, Sir Anthony van Dyck, Louis François Roubilliac, William Hogarth and Sir Joshua Reynold.

 

There are far too many things to note in and around Trafalgar Square to write about it one go. The more you look the more you discover, especially when glancing in the more obscure places. Whilst standing at the foot of Nelson’s column, look out for the worlds smallest police phone box (now a cleaning store cupboard), and, whilst having a drink at the Cafe on the Square, do not miss the outdated standard Imperial measures plaque where people used to come and check the accuracy of their rulers.

 

Trafalgar Square is so much more than statues, water fountains and street performers. With so many marvels hidden in plain sight, hours can easily disappear as you tour the area. This goes for the rest of the City of London, too; the more you look the more you find. Do not be blind to the history surrounding you, it is there to be noticed.

Special thanks to Treasure Trails for providing such an in-depth self-guided tour of Trafalgar Square with an exciting Treasure Hunt game. Take a look at their website for more information about the trail. (Other areas are available.)