Simeon Visits Rainham Hall

A historic house with a difference

44410791_1941816782551260_493275576606392320_nThere is no stopping Simeon the red-haired gibbon (toffee-coloured, if you please); he has got his taste for adventure and is determined to explore. Simeon has now experienced his first National Trust property and is eager to tell everybody about it. Situated in Rainham, Essex, next to St Helen and St Giles Church, is a three storey brown and red-bricked Grade II listed building. Built in the 18th century, Rainham Hall has been open to the public for three years and Simeon thought it was about time he visited it for himself.

With 3-acres of public garden and the cosy Stables Cafe, located in the old stable and coach house, Rainham Hall is a pleasant, quiet place for individuals and families to visit. The house, which had fallen into disrepair shortly after the Second World War, has been refurbished and is safe for all to enter. Sadly, a lot of the house’s history and records have been lost, however, Simeon managed to discover many interesting things.

 

Rainham Hall was built in 1729 by the merchant Captain John Harle (1688-1742) who wished to settle down on land after years at sea. Originally hailing from South Shields, near Newcastle, Harle married a wealthy widow from Stepney, London, Mary Tibbington. Although retiring from the sea, Harle wanted to continue trading, meaning he needed to settle somewhere on the coast or by a river. Rainham, on the River Ingreborne, was the ideal place for the man.

Originally consisting of 11-acres of land, Harle purchased Rainham Wharf, where he dredged the river to clear a trade route to London. He built a house for himself and his wife next to the parish church but close enough to the river so that he could use his outbuildings for his trading company. The house was built in the Dutch domestic Queen Anne style, which was still popular at the time, despite the monarch’s death in 1714.

During the 18th-century, it was typical to use oak for wooden features in buildings, however, the staircase in the Hall is built out of the reddish-brown timber, mahogany. This may have been a cheaper option but the most likely reason for Harle’s choice was its connection with merchant ships. Mahogany was the wood used on the ships and it is thought that Harle may have taken the wood from those that had fallen into disuse.

It is thought that when Captain Harle lived in the house the colours of the walls were a mix of blueish grey, blue and dark olive green, however, the house has since had over 50 tenants and has been decorated several times. Today, the walls of the main staircase are painted a pale blue and feature a trompe-l’œil painting – a deceptive painting that appears three-dimensional. This painting dates to at least 1780, when Sarah Chambers, John Harle’s daughter-in-law, lived at the Hall. It features a Vitruvian scroll surrounded by a decorative floral pattern.

Most of the fireplaces are made from blue-grey marble and some, such as those of the upper floors, are decorated with Delft-blue tiles. This fits in well with the “blue room”, which was apparently once green. The rest of the rooms are now a mix of the different variety of paint schemes that the house has seen over the past couple of centuries.

In the entrance hall, an old dumbwaiter is hidden behind a false wall panel, which visitors can open and peer in. This would have helped staff transfer items from the cellar to the rooms above without having to struggle with the narrow staircases.

Rainham Hall remained in the Harle family until 1895, when it lay abandoned for a couple of decades. In 1917, the Hall was purchased by the property developer and art historian Colonel Herbert Hall Mulliner (1861-1924) who, although never lived there himself, made the building habitable. With knowledge of interior design, Mulliner modernised many of the rooms, moved the kitchen to the cellar and modified the stables so that they could accommodate motor cars. Today, the kitchen has been moved back to its original location, mostly due to the unsafe conditions of the cellar.

Outside the property, Colonel Mulliner installed wrought iron gates and railings, which, amazingly, were never requisitioned during the war years like most other railings in the area. In fact, it is the war years that gave Rainham Hall a significant purpose.

Unfortunately, due to the number of people who have lived in Rainham Hall, there is a lack of original furniture and the purpose of each room can only be speculated. Fortunately, there is a lot more evidence of the building’s use in the 20th century, as shown in Rainham Hall’s 2018 exhibition Remembering the Day Nursery at Rainham Hall. In 1942, the building was requisitioned by the Essex County Council to be set up as a nursery. This allowed mothers the time to go out to work while their husbands were away at war. From 1943 to 1954, the Hall became the daytime home of dozens of young children.

“There cannot be many buildings of such historical value that can boast of having hundreds of tiny feet trotting through their grand hall!”
– Nurse Dorothy, Havering Echo, 12 January 1971

44310983_391376271397212_613273505407959040_n

Simeon gets to know one of the Rainham Hall residents

The exhibition focuses on the memories of seven former nursery attendees, including quotes and photographs that they were able to provide. The house itself has been set out to resemble what it may have looked like to these children. Old toys are dotted about on window sills and examples of games and other playthings are located in display cabinets in various rooms.

Children of the war years would not have had much access to toys at home, therefore, coming to the nursery every day was a great treat for many. A questionnaire in one room offers visitors the chance to reminisce about the toys they remember from their own nursery. Some people may even recognise a few of the items on show.

Historic photographs show the children enjoying the gardens and going for long walks in the sunshine. The nursery could have up to 45 children at a time and it must have been difficult for the nurses to keep everyone satisfied and in check, however, the young faces all look happy and well cared for. In one of the rooms downstairs, possibly the matron’s office, a continuous film shows the children playing together in the house, dancing, acting and getting up to all sorts of mischief that only children are able to find themselves in.

The nursery’s first matron has been identified as Miss Rhoda Violet Carter (d. 1954). She was 40 years old when she took up the post, which was advertised in the Chelmsford ChronicleShe came all the way from Teesside to take up the post that paid £200 a year. The trained nursery assistants, of which there were two at a time, were given an annual salary of £135.

Matron Carter left her position in 1944 after getting married. It is not certain who took over her post but nursery attendants and local sources have been able to name a few other women involved with the running of the place. It is believed a Mrs Hart was the Matron in the late 1940s and a Mrs E. Walker in the 1950s. During the latter’s time, a Nurse Dorothy was present at the nursery. Photographs provided by the children who once attended the nursery have helped to identify another helper, Miss Esme Withers.

One room of the Hall contains photographs belonging to Roger and Janice Cunningham who both attended the nursery. This was something they discovered when they first began dating; they had been too young during the war to remember each other, however, they each have many memories of the nursery,

Roger and Janice married at the church of St Helen and St Giles, right next to Rainham Hall. A brief video shows the couple walking through the graveyard and exploring the newly opened Hall, reminiscing about their childhood. Photographs from between 1946 and 1950 show the blond-haired Janice and the boisterous Roger playing with the other children in the large garden.

The majority of the rooms in Rainham Hall have been decked out with items similar to those that may have been there during the nursery’s time. These are based on the memories of the seven nursery attendees who had been interviewed for this purpose. On the ground floor, the exhibition explains the purpose of the nursery and why it was set up. It also introduces the members of staff that are known to have worked there.

At the back of the house is the reconstructed kitchen. This, of course, was not where it would have been during the war, since Colonel Mulliner had moved it to the basement, however, it has been set out to resemble a typical kitchen from the war era. On the table are examples of magazines containing recipes, for example, Woolton Pie, and rationing instructions.

“Potatoes new, potatoes old
Potato in a salad cold
Potatoes baked or mashed or fried
Potatoes whole, potato pied
Enjoy them all, including chips,
Remembering spuds don’t come in ships.”
– The Song of Potato Pete

In one of the magazines is the children’s song The Song of Potato Pete, which was written to encourage people to eat what they could grow in their own gardens. This song is no longer known by children, or adults for that matter, but many well-known nursery rhymes were adapted to add references to life during the Second World War. Old Mother Hubbard, for example, is worried about food shortages and the woman in There was an Old Woman who Lived in a Shoe is busy looking after the masses of children who have been evacuated to the countryside.

44342814_338964320012852_5119460038825476096_n

“I much prefer bananas.”

Items that were obtainable during the war fill the wooden shelves on one side of the kitchen. On the counter sits a bottle of malt extract that visitors are welcome to taste; Simeon had his first, and hopefully last, morsel of the stuff.

Upstairs, more examples of items that may have been available to the children of the nursery are on display. Visitors are also introduced to clothes rationing with a list of what each child was allowed to have. It was rare for them to have more than a couple of outfits and, of course, there were no disposable nappies. These had to be boil washed and used again.

44433009_2106159859414643_3453732074870013952_n

Simeon enjoyed hearing the stories.

An audio device allows visitors to listen to parts of the interviews with the old nursery attendees. This can be listened to by holding an old-fashioned telephone up to your ear. For those hard of hearing, some of the words have been printed next to the phones and additional quotes can be found dotted around the building.

Whilst the exhibition mostly focuses on the function of the building as a nursery, the dangers and horrors of war cannot be overlooked. Being on the edge of London, Rainham had its share of bomb attacks. Sadly, many people lost their lives during this time, including children. A wall containing an old map of the area, plotted with the places bombs landed, remembers the names and families of these children. In some instances, entire families were wiped out in one blast, which goes to show how lucky many people were to survive the war.

44352424_312515149335573_4372623775045255168_n

Sweet dreams …

Although children enjoyed attending and felt safe at Rainham Hall, there was always the risk of an air raid. Nonetheless, life had to go on as normally as possible, which for children included education, games and naps. Tiny camp beds can be found in one of the rooms on the second floor. They do not look all that comfortable – Simeon can confirm they are not – however, they sufficed for the children at the time.

Just as they are today, children were educated through play and songs, learning the alphabet with pictures, chanting “A is for apple, B is for ball, C is for carrot …” Before televisions were around, the radio provided children with stories on programmes such as Listen with Mother; “Are you sitting comfortably? Then I’ll begin.” An old record player gives visitors the opportunity to listen to a few of these episodes.

Simeon enjoyed discovering the Rainham Hall nursery and learning a little about childhood during the war years. Unfortunately, the National Trust, who owns the property, relies on old records, of which there are very few, and the memories of people associated with the place. As a result, the exhibition lacks a concise history of the Hall and the nursery, which is a great shame because it was such an integral part of the lives of women and children during the war.

The staff at Rainham Hall encourage anyone with memories or knowledge about Rainham Hall to contact them with details. Any small piece of information is useful to help build up the history of the building and its inhabitants and, perhaps, inspire future exhibitions.

If you wish to visit the exhibition Remembering the Day Nursery at Rainham Hall, which Simeon highly recommends, you do not have much time left. The exhibition will finish on 31st December 2018 to make way for their next display in the new year. Entry to the house costs £6, although National Trust members can visit for free. The garden and cafe are accessible on days that the house is open (Wednesday – Sunday).

Simeon wishes you all a good visit.

If you enjoy reading about Simeon’s adventures, here are some more:
Amsterdam
Bloomsbury

Havering: More than a Museum

4629973383

When London was chosen as England’s capital city it was relatively small compared to the area we are familiar with today. It was not until buildings such as Westminster Abbey were erected that London became a place of importance. Prior to that time, Winchester was reportedly considered as the English capital when the various kingdoms united as one country in 927AD. Now, London is so large that it has been split in half: the City of London and Greater London. The latter has been divided further into thirty-two boroughs, one of which is named the London Borough of Havering.

The main towns that make up the London Borough of Havering are Romford, Hornchurch, Upminster and Rainham; but these were not always the built up areas they are today. On the site of the old Romford Brewery (now a shopping centre) is a small museum devoted to preserving the history of the borough and its original background. Although not of a considerable size and mostly run by volunteers, the museum provides an extensive history of the towns, buildings and important people that helped to develop the initial agricultural area.

Havering Museum is set out so that it is easy to navigate around the display cases and follow the information on a journey through different themes. A common theme of most historical museums is the impact of the First and Second World War. Photographs and found or donated items illustrate the war connections with the borough – although, since the London Borough of Havering did not come into existence until 1st April 1965, all historical mentions are about the areas that would eventually become one borough.

A brief history of each town has been researched and collated to provide short stories about the areas from as early as Saxon times to the present-day. Some of this is synonymous with the rest of the country and therefore is a more general history than specific to Havering. This includes developments in public transport, building material and commodities. Glass cabinets house objects from the past such as children’s toys, broken pottery, ancient coins and unidentified articles.

Throughout the year, the museum holds temporary exhibitions about specific themes or events that either affected Havering directly or would have concerned citizens in the London area in general. For example, between 15th June and 2nd September 2017, a selection of radios were on display, from early models to the more recognisable recent versions. Between the same dates was another display: 1950s Fashion. Until 4th November 2017, the museum is focusing on local men at war, which may interest those who grew up in this area during and after the conflict.

Havering Museum will mostly attract those who have lived in the area for a considerable length of time. It will evoke memories of the past but also explain some of the mysteries and questions people have about their local area. On the other hand, the museum curators have made it suitable for children to enjoy, too. There are plenty of hands on activities including puzzles and games, as well as drawers to open and inspect.

One of the activities for children (or those young at heart) is a brass rubbing of a coat of arms. With the supplied paper and crayons, visitors can create their own print of the coat of arms that once belonged to the Hornchurch Urban District Council that existed from approximately 1926 until the creation of the London boroughs in 1965. The motto “A good name endureth” has been adopted by the football club AFC Hornchurch, and they have also appropriated a similar coat of arms as their logo.

coat_of_arms

The Havering coat of arms

The current Havering coat of arms is remarkably different to the original owned by Hornchurch. To begin with, the colour scheme is a complete contrast, using royal blue and gold as opposed to red. This is because these were the colours of the ancient Royal Liberty of Havering – a royal manor built in the 11th century.

The symbols that make up the logo represent different areas of the borough. The gate house reflects on the old Palace of Havering, which was also depicted on the crest of the former Romford Borough Council. The bull’s head is a reference to Hornchurch and the leafy design points out the boroughs connection to green areas such as Epping Forest and Hainault Forest.

The lower half of the coat of arms consists of a shield with a design to represent the sails on a windmill, for example, the one that still exists in Upminster. The ring, however, has an interesting, and only slightly believable story attached to it. Legend claims that Edward the Confessor (1003-1066) gave his ring to a beggar, who later proved to be St John the Apostle, whilst saying the words “have ring”. Hence, Havering. This may seem a bit far-fetched, but no one can prove or deny it.

The logo of the London Borough of Havering is the simple word “Liberty” which means freedom and independence. The word, however, was chosen as a reminder of the Royal Liberty.

As mentioned already, Havering did not become a borough until 1965, therefore most of the story that the museum is telling is not about the borough at all. The most interesting information is about the buildings, some of which no longer exist in the area, but whose names have lived on in the names of parks, streets and schools. Other buildings are still around today, and their history is just as surprising.

There are many churches in the London Borough of Havering but only a handful date back several centuries. St Laurence Church in Upminster is a Grade 1 listed building whose tower stonework dates back as far as the 1200s. Historians believe that a church has existed on the same site since the 7th century. St Laurence Church’s claim to fame is the first accurate measurement of the speed of sound, discovered through the use of the church bells. Another historic connection is the resting place of Alice Perrers, the mistress of King Edward III, who died in 1400.

Although St Laurence Church is considerably old, it is not the most important in the history of Havering. St Andrew’s Church in Hornchurch also dates back to the 1200s, the first record of it being recorded in 1222. St Andrew’s was once the principal church in the areas that now make up Havering. Hornchurch is an Anglicised version of the Latin Monasterium Cornutum, which translates into English as “church with horn like gables”. This is in reference to the stone bull’s head on the Eastern Gable. This may not be as old as the church itself, but records show it existed in 1384. The significance of the bull is most likely associated with the leather industry that Hornchurch was originally involved with.

Other ancient buildings in Upminster and Hornchurch include a 15th-century Tithe barn, a windmill built in 1803 by a local farmer, James Nokes, now the last remaining smock mill in London, “High House” dating from the 1700s, and Fairkytes, an 18th-century house now owned by Havering Arts Centre.

Romford, as previously mentioned, was home to a large brewery that opened in 1799. It ran for almost two centuries, finally closing in 1997. Although most of the original factory has been demolished, the gated entrance to the brewery still stands. This is where the Havering Museum can be found. The rest of the site, still known as The Brewery, is a shopping and leisure centre containing a number of shops, restaurants, a cinema and a gym.

Romford’s greatest attraction throughout history has been the market place. Since 1247, people have travelled to buy and sell in the centre of the town, beginning with sheep but now selling anything from fruit and clothes to digital gadgets. Henry III granted Romford permission to hold a market every Wednesday. This attracted a great number of people, causing the town to expand. The arrival of Romford train station increased the population further, resulting in the large town it is today – one of the largest in the districts outside of central London.

Within the marketplace stands The Golden Lion Pub. Still functioning today, it has been in business since 1440. Unbeknownst to many people, including the locals, in 1601, Sir Francis Bacon inherited the position of the landlord of the pub. This is not its only claim to fame; apparently, Dick Turpin, the English highwayman, may have spent a couple of nights there.

The history of Havering’s towns does little to put it on the map in terms of a tourist attraction, however, alongside Sir Francis Bacon, there are a few significant names connected with the area. Unfortunately, the majority of these people mean nothing to society today. The elite families that inhabited the manors of Upminster and Hornchurch disappeared along with the demolition of the buildings.

“Famous” People

  • Lady Edna Clarke Hall (1879-1979) – a watercolour artist and poet who produced illustrations for Wuthering Heights by Emily Brontë. Many of her artworks are owned by the Tate. She lived in Upminster and even painted a miniature study of Upminster Common.
  • Henria Williams – a suffragette from Upminster who died two months after the “Black Friday” disturbance in which she was injured. It is highly likely that other suffragettes lived in the area and records report that pillar boxes in Romford were set alight during one of their protests.
  • Ian Dury (1942-2000) – another Upminster inhabitant, Ian Dury was a rock-and-roll singer, songwriter and actor who rose to fame during the 1970s. His second solo studio album was titled Lord Upminster.
  • Joseph Fry – the son of the English prison reformer Elizabeth Fry, lived in Fairkytes between 1870 and 1896.
  • Francis Quarles (1592-1644) – a Romford-born poet. This is presumably where the Quarles Campus of Havering College got its name. Beware of him that is slow to anger; for when it is long coming, it is the stronger when it comes, and the longer kept. Abused patience turns to fury.”

There have also been connections with royalty throughout the past centuries. Harold Godwinson often went hunting in the forests nearby, resulting in the names of two of Havering’s smaller towns: Harold Wood and Harold Hill. Edward the Confessor gave Havering Palace to Harold, which then got passed down the royal family throughout the following centuries. Havering Palace was situated in the Havering-atte-Bower area, however, it has long since been demolished. It is believed that Elizabeth I enjoyed staying there during her reign.

It is disappointing that these buildings were not preserved for posterity. So much of our history is very quickly erased. It is only with thanks to historians and volunteers, such as those at the Havering Museum, that any information about this London borough has been retained.

Most people would travel to central London or other important towns and cities around the country when looking for some historical details. What gets forgotten is that everywhere, regardless of how big or small, has some history attached to it. It is surprising what gets dug up when people put their minds to it.

Those wanting to know more about Havering and its past must take a trip to the Havering Museum. It is open from Wednesday to Saturday between 11 am and 5 pm. It only costs £2.50 to enter and is worth the price.

Regardless of whether you live in Havering or not, think about looking into the history of the area you are from. Museums in central London will provide general details about the city, but the meaningful information will always be closer to home.

Havering Museum is a Heritage Lottery Funded project and an independent Museum run by Havering’s volunteers and supporters. Registered Charity No. 1093763