Beside the Sea

In recent years, scientific studies have proven the human brain is hardwired to react positively to water. Being near the sea, for example, has helped many people feel calmer, happier and healthier. Since ancient times, humans have associated water with healing. In Roman times, public baths were an important part of the culture. In India and China, water properties were vital for medicine and in many cultures and religions rivers have been assigned sacred properties.

Today, many of us are drawn to the sea or lakes, particularly for holidays. Some people benefit from water sports and others from a long shower or bath. Swimming is an activity that both relaxes the brain and exercises the body.

The colour blue, which is usually associated with water, has been listed as the favourite colour of the majority of the world’s population. Blue is also associated with calmness, openness and wisdom. Marine biologist Wallace J. Nichols writes, “We have a ‘blue mind’ — and it’s perfectly tailored to make us happy in all sorts of ways that go way beyond relaxing in the surf, listening to the murmur of a stream, or floating quietly in a pool.” He claims being around water relaxes the mind, inducing a mildly meditative state. Water helps us become more aware of the life around us, helping us connect with other people’s emotions. Spending time near water can also help the brain to become more creative. Many great ideas, for instance, have been formed in the shower. The brain switches into a more restful state, allowing thoughts to flow freely.

In the past couple of weeks, Britain has experienced the draw of the sea with hundreds flocking to beaches to make the most of the heatwave and the lessening of lockdown restrictions. Unfortunately, most people have been forced to cancel their holidays due to COVID-19, meaning many will miss out on the opportunity to relax and unwind by the sea, ocean or lake.

Although it is by no means the same, Google Arts & Culture have compiled a dozen artworks of calming seascapes that can be viewed online. The sea has been a popular subject for artists, no doubt for the above reasons, but also because it allows artists to experiment with technique and colour. Seascapes are also nice to look at, and therefore more likely to sell.

La maison du pêcheur, Varengeville – Claude Monet (1840-1926)

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La maison du pêcheur, Varengeville – Monet

Many of Claude Monet’s paintings involve a body of water, be it sea, river or pond. Several of his seascapes are of the Normandy coastline, where he took solace after the death of his first wife Camille (1847-79).

La maison du pêcheur, Varengeville was one of several paintings produced by Monet at the end of the 1880s. Situated on the coast of the English Channel, Varengeville-sur-Mer is a commune in Normandy known for its huge chalk cliffs and pebble beach. It was from the tops of these cliffs that Monet sat to paint the stunning views across an expanse of blue-green sea. This particular painting includes a fisherman’s hut (maison du pêcheur), which hints at the type of manual lifestyle of the local people. The hut may also have been used as a customs officer’s house, from which he could keep an eye out for smugglers.

Varengeville-sur-Mer, situated five miles west of Dieppe, was once a favourite hunting place of King Francis I of France (1494-1547). Visitors today can still see his hunting lodge as well as two chateaus. From the same century is the Manoir d’Ango, a manor house built between 1530 and 1545 by Jean Ango (1480-1551). Ango was a Norman ship owner who provided ships for Francis I. A cemetery by the sea also dates to the 16th century.

At the turn of the 20th century, Guillaume Mallet became the owner of one of the large valleys overlooking the sea: Bois des Moutiers. Within the 30-acres of land, he commissioned the British architect Edward Lutyens (1869-1944) to renovate the manor house. Gertrude Jekyll (1843-1932) was asked to design the garden, which is known for its rhododendrons, azaleas and magnolias. The interior of the house was furnished by Morris & Co, including a tapestry of The Adoration of the Magi, designed by Edward Burne-Jones (1833-98).

Monet is not the only artist associated with Varengeville-sur-Mer. Buried in the cemetery is Georges Braque (1883-1963), a Cubist artist who designed the stained glass window for the local church. The window depicts a Jesse Tree, which is a representation of the genealogy of Jesus. The church, St. Valery, which dates from the 13th century, sits on the top of the cliffs and is at risk of falling into the sea.

Fishing on Haengho Lake – Jeong Seon (1676-1759)

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Fishing on Haengho Lake – Jeong Seon

Jeong Seon, also known by the pseudonym Kyomjae (“humble study”) was a landscape painter who focused on the geographical features of Korea. Jeong was born into a poor yangban family – civil servants and military officers – in the Jongo District of Hanyang (Seoul). He decided to become a landscape painter at a young age and began working at the Bureau of Painting. At the age of 41, Jeong moved to the Office for Observance of Natural Phenomena but an aristocratic neighbour spotted his talent and introduced him to the court where he gained an official position.

As one of the most famous Korean painters, Jeong had a significant impact on the Korean art of the Joseon era (1700-1850). Using inks and oriental water on either paper or silk, Jeong was the first painter of true-view Korean landscapes, particularly focusing on the capital city of Hanyang (Seoul), the Han River, the Sea of Japan and the Kumgang Mountains (Diamond Mountain).

Fishing on Haengho Lake is a typical example of Jeong’s style of work. He attempted to paint the world as he saw it, using bold strokes for mountains and streams. The background is created from layers of ink wash upon which the features are drawn with a thick brush. Vegetation is depicted as a series of dots, which was inspired by Chinese art from the 11th century.

Unfortunately, it is not certain where Haengho Lake is today since many places have been renamed. One possibility is the Han River, which flows through the capital city, or Seokchon Lake, which was originally part of the river. Seokchon Lake was formed when an island in the Han River was artificially “reclaimed” by the mainland in the 1970s. Initially, the lake suffered from water pollution due to the construction work, however, after careful maintenance, the water has remained clear since 2011.

The landscape has altered significantly since Jeong painted the area. Whereas Jeong had a clear view of the mountains, today they are obscured by tall buildings, such as the Lotte World Tower, which reaches a height of 1,823 ft, making it the fifth-highest building in the world. Nonetheless, areas such as Seokchon lake provide visitors with a taste of Korean life. In the spring, the Seokchon Lake Cherry Blossom Festival is held to celebrate the beautiful landscape. In the Autumn, the Seokchon Lake Deciduous Street Festival begins, celebrating the natural flora of South Korea. Participants fill the lake with thousands of deciduous leaves from native trees, such as maple and ginkgo.

The east side of the river is named café street due to the number of food establishments. There is at least one café every 100-metres, which provide many varieties of food and drink as well as a view over the lake.

Sea and Sky – Rafael Martínez Padilla (1878-1958)

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Sea and Sky – Rafael Martínez Padilla

Very little is known about Rafael Padilla other than he lived in Barcelona and was a friend of Picasso (1881-1973). His paintings were exhibited in Barcelona and Paris, where he lived for some time after 1937.

Padilla produced a range of portraits, still-life and landscapes including Sea and Sky, which shows a solitary sea view with a broad horizon and dramatic sky. It is most likely a view from El Port de la Selva on the Costa Brava, which Padilla returned to many times in his paintings.

El Port de la Selva is a traditional fishing village and harbour situated 20 kilometres away from the French border. Today, it is a seaside resort sheltered by mountains with a natural bay that is popular with windsurfers. The relatively small town dates back to the 17th century and still contains some of the cobbled streets and original houses.

Whereas it was once a peaceful village, El Port de la Selva attracts the more adventurous tourists who wish to partake in sailing, kayaking, diving, water skiing and so on. There are more peaceful pastimes, such as fishing, the opportunity to relax on a clean beach, and the chance to taste the local cuisine.

The area enjoys hot summers and mild winters, making it a place that can be visited throughout the year. There are stunning views from the mountains and hills across a turquoise sea, as seen in Padilla’s painting.

Not far from the town is the Sant Pere de Rodes, a former Benedictine monastery, which was founded in the 10th century. Allegedly monks travelled to the area by sea with the remains of Saint Peter and other saints to save the relics from the Barbarians that were invading the Roman Empire.

The Sea from Capri – William Stanley Haseltine (1835-1900)

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The Sea from Capri – William Stanley Haseltine

William Stanley Haseltine was an American painter and draughtsman from Philadelphia who, after graduating from Harvard University in 1854, travelled around Europe with a colony of American painters. Initially, they studied in Düsseldorf, then travelled up the Rhine to places in Switzerland and Italy. Eventually, they settled in Rome where they spent the year painting landscapes around the city and on the island of Capri before returning home in 1858.

Whilst in Italy, Haseltine stayed in the Certosa of San Giacomo (Carthusian Monastery of St. John), which sits atop a limestone cliff overlooking the town of Capri. It is from there that he produced the oil painting The Sea from Capri, which shows the ruins of the Villa Jovis, erected by Emperor Tiberius (42 BC-AD 37) in the 1st century, in the foreground.

Capri is located in the Tyrrhenian Sea on the south side of the Gulf of Naples. Its name traces back to the Ancient Greeks and means either “wild boar” or “goat island”, which suggests the island was once inhabited by animals. Before the First World War, the island was popular with wealthy gay men, for example, the poet Somerset Maugham (1874-1965) who shared a villa with the pianist John Ellingham Brooks (1863-1929). Since then, it has been a popular place for celebrities to own villas including, Soviet author Maxim Gorky (1868-1936), Queen Victoria of Sweden (1862-1930), Dame Gracie Fields (1898-1979) and Mariah Carey (b.1969).

During the late 19th century, Capri was a popular destination for artists, such as Haseltine and his friends. John Singer Sargent (1856-1925) is among the prominent artists who stayed on the island, and French composer Claude Debussy (1862-1918) was inspired by the hills and refers to a town on the island in one of his piano composition: Les collines d’Anacapri (The Hills of Anacapri).

Capri, which is twinned with Crosby in Merseyside, is believed to be the spot where Odysseus heard the Siren’s song on his epic journey home from the battle of Troy. It was the home of Emperor Tiberius, hence the villa in Haseltine’s painting, which can be visited by tourists today. Described as a dream honeymoon destination, it is very popular with holidaymakers during the summer months. Some choose to stay on the island, however, as it is not ideal for beaches, many holiday on the mainland and take a day trip to Capri.

Haseltine was attracted to the island’s scenic charm, as are the majority of visitors today. Coastlines can be admired from tall cliffs, which contain several hidden grottos and there are plenty of walking opportunities. Haseltine’s painting was likely produced at sunset, demonstrating the way the light plays on the expanse of turquoise sea, which contrasts with the glowing colours of the sky.

Seascape. View of the Bay of Palma de Mallorca – Antonio Muñoz Degrainca (1840-1924)

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Seascape. View of the Bay of Palma de Mallorca – Antonio Muñoz Degrainca

Antonio Muñoz Degrain, born in Valencia in 1840, was an eclectic Impressionist artist who is best known for his landscapes and scenes inspired by works of literature. He lived a rather Bohemian lifestyle, although was later commissioned to paint the ceiling of the Teatro Cervantes in Málaga and was awarded the Grand Cross of the Order of Charles III for his historical painting of Queen Isabella I of Castille (1451-1504), the mother of Catherine of Aragon (1485-1536).

Seascape. View of the Bay of Palma de Mallorca is Muñoz Degrain’s only painting of Mallorca, which may have been produced on a “working cruise” on the Mediterranean, which inspired many of his artworks. In 1922, Muñoz Degrain was considered for the position of chair at the Palma de Mallorca Academy but lost out to someone else.

This painting is made up of the colours purple, orange, yellow and blue, which were typical of his later works. His brushstrokes are broad and uneven, which accentuates the visual qualities of sky, sea and land. The rocks, seen at a distance, appear to be lit up by a low lying sun, although the colours are not quite realistic. On the other hand, the ripples of waves on the sea are convincing, as are the sparkles of light caused by the setting sun.

Since all the vessels on the sea are fairly modern, it is likely Muñoz Degrain painted the scene as he saw it from a boat. In other landscape paintings, he often added fanciful elements, suggesting an earlier period, for example, an ancient Phoenician boat. In this painting, a steamer is heading towards the island and pleasure yachts are sailing along the coast. A small rowing boat, the nearest vessel to the artist, is being controlled by an elegantly dressed woman, while her companion lies slumped over the stern, potentially seasick.

Palma de Mallorca is the capital of Mallorca and the largest city in the Balearic Islands. Today it is a popular tourist destination with over 29 million people using Palma Airport each year. Originally a Roman camp, the city and island have passed through many hands, eventually settling as a territorial division of Spain in 1833. It was not until 1950 that the island was suitable for holidaymakers, however, since the turn of the 21st century, more than half of the population works in tourism.

La Seu, or the Cathedral of Santa Maria of Palma, is one of the popular attractions of the city. It was built on top of a previous mosque, which was, in turn, built upon the original church. Catalan architect Antoni Gaudí (1852-1926) was invited to restore the building in 1901, which adds to its public appeal. Mallorca has experienced a mix of religions over the centuries. Although it was originally a Christian area, it was taken over by Muslims in 902 AD. James I of Aragon reconquered the land for Christianity in 1229 but, soon after, many Jews made their way to the island. As a result, there is a mix of architecture in the city; the maze of streets indicate an Arab history, however, the architecture has been likened to Italian cities, such as Florence.

Another highlight of Palma de Mallorca is the beaches and marinas. Tourists can relax on Palma City Beach and enjoy a panoramic view of the ocean. Yachts frequently set sail from the beaches, as can be seen in Muñoz Degrain’s painting. Looking back at the island, sailors have a good view of the Serra de Tramuntana mountains and a line of palm trees that lead to the next beach.

Marine – Osvaldo Licini (1894-1958)

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Marine – Osvaldo Licini

Osvaldo Licini’s Marine (or Marina) may seem an odd choice for Google Arts & Culture’s list of calming seascapes, however, it demonstrates an alternative way of depicting the sea. Licini was an Italian abstract painter from the Marche region of Italy. Very little is known about him, however, his paintings have been topics of discussion for many art critics.

One critic stated Licini achieved the “metaphysical depiction of silence” in his seascapes. He wanted to show that geometric shapes can demonstrate feelings, “strength, will and ideas; colours convey magic.” Another critic, Flaminio Gualdoni, the author of several art books, describes Marine as “full and vibrant, composed of temperatures, and of sonorous and ambiguous tones, both tense and dense, and capable of vibrating even when the layer is full and uniform.”

Marine, painted around 1957 and, therefore, one of Licini’s final paintings, is divided into blocks of bright, intense colours. The blue represents the sea and the yellow the sky, possibly at sunset. Triangular shapes suggest landforms, however, one diagonal line rising from the land vanishes into the sky. One interpretation is of a mountain whose peak fades into a hazy sky.

1024px-monte_conero_visto_dalla_spiaggia_urbaniIt is not certain where Licini painted Marine or whether it was an imaginary seascape. He was born in Ascoli Piceno, which is not on the seafront and died in Monte Vidon Corrado, which is also inland. Both these towns, however, are in the Marche region, which is bordered on the east by the Adriatic Sea. Monte Conero, situated on the sea near the port of Ancona, is a contender for the land seen in Licini’s painting. Ancona is a city worth visiting for history lovers as well as beach lovers. The city was originally founded by the Greeks but was later taken by the Romans. It then became a Byzantine city followed by a Maritime republic and a Papal State. As a result, there are sights from all periods: the Arch of Trajan, an 11th-century cathedral and an Episcopal Palace to name a few.

Approach to Venice – J. M. W. Turner (1775-1851)

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Approach to Venice – J. M. W. Turner

“The moon is up, and yet it is not night / The sun as yet disputes the day with her.” – Lord Byron

This painting by Turner shows a view of Venice at sunset. The yellow clouds evidence the direction of the setting sun, however, on the left, the glowing moon can already be seen. A flotilla of barges and gondolas are making their way back to shore at the end of a long day on the water. Approach to Venice is one of several oil paintings Turner produced in Venice in which he explored the effect of light on the cities waterways.

Turner made his first journey abroad in 1802, however, did not visit Venice until 1820, although, he returned two or three times before his death in 1851. He was attracted by the Venetian Lagoon, which lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave rivers. Known as “La Dominante”, “La Serenissima”, “Queen of the Adriatic”, “City of Water”, “City of Masks”, “City of Bridges”, “The Floating City”, and “City of Canals”, Venice is made up of 118 small islands that are linked together by over 400 bridges. It has been ranked many times as the world’s most beautiful city and cultural centre.

For those wishing to spend time on the water, then Venice is the place to be. Unfortunately, its popularity as a tourist destination has caused the city some problems, namely pollution and flooding. The latter is a constant threat, particularly in the autumn and spring when the tide is typically higher. Despite being a car-free city, the lagoons and canals are often polluted by the motorised water buses and cruise ships, which bring over 1.5 million people to the city per year. The ships are also another cause of flooding.

Nonetheless, Venice has been an inspiration for many people, including Turner. Shakespeare’s (1564-1616) The Merchant of Venice and Othello were set in the city and Venice also features prominently in books by Henry James (1843-1916), Evelyn Waugh (1903-66) and Marcel Proust (1871-1922). Many artists have been drawn to the city, the most famous being Canaletto (1697-1768) who is largely remembered for his landscapes of Venice. Other artists include Monet, Titian (1488-1576) and Tintoretto (1518-94).

Sea in the Morning – Kei Murayama

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Sea in the morning – Kei Murayama

Kei Murayama is a contemporary Japanese artist who has painted several seascapes and landscapes that demonstrate the magnificent natural scenery in Japan. Painted in ink and watercolour, the artist captures the colours of the sunrise, both in the sky and on the water, and expertly portrays the gentle waves produced on a calm day.

Japan is not usually thought of as a beach destination since most people imagine the bustling city of Tokyo, however, being a long, thin country surrounded by the Pacific Ocean and the Japan and the East China Sea, there are plenty of beaches to visit. Okinawa Prefecture, consisting of a dozen small islands, is famous for its white sandy beaches and turquoise waters. Not far from Tokyo are several beaches from which the cities skyscrapers can be seen as well as a great view of Mount Fiji. For swimming and snorkelling, the best beaches are in the south, however, there are plenty of places to relax all around the country

On Lake Attersee – Gustav Klimt (1862-1918)

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On Lake Attersee – Gustav Klimt

Austrian artist Gustav Klimt was a symbolist painter and member of the Vienna Secession movement, which was closely related to Art Nouveau. He had a particularly distinct style, which, for those who know his painting of The Kiss, is instantly recognisable. Klimt’s landscape paintings, however, were produced in a different style with colours not too dissimilar from paintings by Monet. The turquoise water in On Lake Attersee also reflects the colours of his favourite lake on a summer morning.

Attersee is the largest lake in the Salzkammergut region of Austria, east of the city of Salzburg. With a length of 12 miles and a width of 2.5 miles, the clean quality of the water attracts many sailors and swimmers. The water, however, is often cold but it rarely freezes. Settlements around the lake rely on tourism, which is at its peak in the summer months.

In the top righthand corner of Klimt’s painting is a small island called Litzlberg. The name derives from Lützelburg, which means “small castle”. This is in reference to a monastery, which was also used as a place of refuge. Since it was only accessible by water, it was impossible to sneak up on, making it a safe place for those in danger to stay. Today, it is a private island and joined to the island by a bridge that was built in 1917, seventeen years after Klimt painted the lake. The rest of the lake and surrounding areas are open to the public and offer a range of activities including diving, water sports, cycling, swimming and hiking.

Slumbering Sea, Mentone – Tom Roberts (1856-1931)

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Slumbering sea, Mentone – Tom Roberts

Although born in Dorset, England, Thomas William Roberts was a key member of the Heidelberg School art movement, better known as Australian Impressionism. His family emigrated to Australia when he was 13 years old, although returned briefly to the UK to study at the Royal Academy Schools.

Mentone, a suburb in Melbourne, is associated with the Heidelberg School of Australian artists and is the location of Roberts’ painting Slumbering Sea. Painted en plein air, Roberts shows a woman, boy and dog meeting a boat as it sails onto Mentone Beach from Beaumaris Bay. Roberts was a renowned colourist and used rich earthy colours for the sand and chalky whites for the cliffs in the distance. These are offset by the gentle blues of the sea and sky and the vivid whites of the boat and clothing. The way Roberts painted the figures suggests he had developed his technique by studying Old Masters.

The resort town was named after the formerly-Italian French town Menton, which is why many of the streets also have Italian names. The beach is the town’s biggest attraction, however, the area is generally residential rather than tourist-focused.

View of Shima Slope – Utagawa Hiroshige (1797-1858)

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View of Shima Slope – Utagawa Hiroshige

Utagawa Hiroshige was the last great master of ukiyo-e, a style of Japanese art that produced woodblock prints and paintings. He is best known for his many landscape series, including One Hundred Famous Views of Edo, which went on to inspire many artists including Vincent van Gogh (1853-90).

View of Shima Slope is a colour woodblock print that shows a view of Tokyo Bay from Shima Slope, also known as Shiomizaka. Today, this view has disappeared due to the growing city, however, it was very popular with ukiyo-e artists during Hiroshige’s lifetime. Shiomizaka has two meanings, the most common of which is “watch the tide”. The other is “see death”.

Tokyo Bay, which Hiroshige knew as Edo Bay, is connected to the Pacific Ocean and is the most populous and largest industrialized area in Japan. Within the bay is an artificial island called Odaiba, which can be reached by crossing Rainbow Bridge from central Tokyo. Initially, it was built for defensive purposes but today it is a major commercial, residential and leisure area. The island was due to be one of the venues for the 2020 Summer Olympic Games, which has now been postponed.

There are many attractions on Odaiba including an artificial beach, Venice-themed shopping centre, 377ft Ferris wheel (Daikanransha), Sea Forest Waterway, museums, swimming pools and a replica of the Statue of Liberty. The island is essentially an entertainment district, therefore, Tokyo Bay is no longer the calming seascape depicted by Hiroshige.

Port of Saint-Cast – Paul Signac (1863-1935)

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Port of Saint-Cast – Paul Signac

Paul Signac was a Neo-Impressionist painter who developed the Pointillist style with Georges Seurat (1859-91). Signac had originally been influenced by Monet, however, with Seurat, he abandoned the free brushwork of the Impressionist style for a systematic application of tiny dots of colour, as seen in Port of Saint-Cast. This painting is one of four Signac produced along the coast of Brittany on the English Channel. Despite the vibrant colours, the painting is rather sparse, suggesting it was a clear, still day with nothing significant happening on the water.

Saint-Cast-le-Guildo, known as Saint-Cast for short, used to be a fishing community but now boasts of splendid beaches to attract tourists. The commune was named after a Welsh monk and is a favourite spot for gathering seashells on the many sandy beaches. Since the mid-19th century, Saint-Cast has been a chic resort with many posh villas. The area is popular with walkers and cyclists.

These twelve paintings are only a small sample of seascapes but they go to show that artists from all periods and painting styles have been drawn to the water. Their views of seas, oceans and lakes not only demonstrate the beauty of water but also preserve the shorelines that have now changed beyond recognition.

When these artists painted these seascapes, it is doubtful they imagined people in quarantine looking at them wistfully from their computer screens, and yet, here we are. There are plenty more paintings to look at on the internet and, whilst virtual tours, photographs and videos can show you these destinations in the 21st century, it is nice to imagine yourself in the quieter settings of these paintings.

To see the paintings in more detail, visit 12 Calming Seascapes on Google Arts & Culture.

Monet’s Architectural Visions

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The Water-Lily Pond

Claude Monet (1840-1926) is perhaps best known for his en plein air paintings of gardens and countryside, particularly, for example, The Water-Lily Pond (1899). Whilst it is true that Monet produced many paintings of nature, for the majority of his artistic career, Monet concentrated on landscapes and cityscapes, focusing on the man-made buildings rather than the natural environment.

In a recent exhibition at the National Gallery, sponsored by the Credit Suisse, Monet & Architecture explored the overlooked aspects of Monet’s works with over 75 paintings spanning from the early 1860s until 1912. Split into three themes, the gallery focused on The Village and the Picturesque, which included paintings of cottages by rocky paths or sea fronts; The City and the Modern, featuring a mix of new and old buildings; and, finally, The Monument and the Mysterious, with examples of Monet’s experiments with atmosphere and light.

Born in Paris and brought up in Normandy, Monet had access to an area of France steeped in medieval history and buildings. With these scenes at his mercy, he produced many picturesque landscapes, not too dissimilar in style to his nature-based paintings.

As Monet’s reputation as a painter increased, he began visiting other areas of France and travelling to various countries on the continent. As a result, his broad collection of artwork almost reads like a photo album, documenting the places he lived or holidayed.

 

Many of Monet’s landscapes involve a body of water, be it sea, river or pond. Despite his Impressionist style – a name coined in 1874 to describe the works of the Sociéte anonyme des artistes peintres, of which he was a founding member – Monet was exceptionally good at portraying the movement of the water, both stormy and calm, and expertly reveals the reflection of the sky and buildings amongst the waves and ripples.

Whilst staying at Zaandam in the Netherlands, Monet had plenty of opportunities to combine water and architecture by studying the many commercial waterways, particularly those he saw during a trip to Amsterdam.

Often, Monet repainted scenes several times over a long period. He was always interested in the ways different lights and weather (effets) affected the landscapes he painted. An early example of this method of working took place on the coast of Normandy during 1882. Here, Monet became fascinated with a little cottage hidden between the jutting rocks of the cliffs.

 

The National Gallery displayed three paintings containing the hidden cottage, which was purportedly used during Napoleon’s reign as a customs office to keep a lookout for smugglers. The first painting, The Customs Officer’s Cottage, Varengeville, was most likely produced at the end of the winter months. The sea is choppy and the sky fairly dark, possibly a sign of an approaching storm. Monet stood behind and to the left of the building but near enough that the cottage became the main focus on the canvas.

The Cliff at Varengeville, on the other hand, was painted further away from the cliff edge. At first glance, it is easy to miss the roof of the cottage hidden by the uneven clifftop. This painting was produced during the summer months; the sky is clear and the sea much calmer. Although it is not shown in the landscape, the sun is bright, its rays lighting up the vegetation and reflecting off the surface of the water.

The final painting of the customs office was produced below rather than atop the cliff. The Path Through the Cliff at Varengeville is set in one of the ravines leading down to the sea. The cottage can be seen in the top left-hand corner, however, the eye is instinctively drawn to the v-shaped view of the sea in the distance. The blue water contrasts with the autumnal colours of the growth along the cliffs and the darkening sky, suggesting that this was one of the final paintings Monet produced before he left Varengeville in early October.

During the 1860s and 70s, Monet developed an interest of painting in cities, studying the more modern buildings that had begun to crop up – a contrast to the stone cottages as seen in the villages. The Exposition Universelle of 1867, the second world’s fair to be held in Paris, drew Monet to the capital. Here he sat on a balcony overlooking the Seine, painting the buildings on the opposite bank as well as portraying the crowds on the street below him. Including members of the public was an unusual feature for Monet, who prefered to concentrate on the scenery rather than the day-to-day goings on in the surroundings. This could be due to the manner of en plein air painting, in which most of the work is completed in situ; it is far easier to paint the stationary buildings than the moving bodies, carriages and animals.

Whilst in Paris, Monet painted a combination of old and new buildings, revealing the diverse styles of architecture. In The Quai du Louvre (1867), Monet contrasted the medieval clock tower of Saint-Etienne-du-Mont with the 18th-century Panthéon. Within the same landscape is the Pont Neuf, which was completed in yet another century, 1606 to be precise.

Three years later, Monet married Camille Doncieux (1847-79), who had already born him one son, Jean, in August 1867. The couple would later have another son, Michel, in 1878, a year before Camille sadly succumbed to pelvic cancer. For their honeymoon, M. and Mme Monet travelled to Trouville, a commune on the coast in the Calvados department in Normandy. Although this was not a city, it was a fashionable place for tourists with picturesque buildings. On the Boardwalk at Trouville (1870), Monet provides a glimpse of the holiday resort from his position near the edge of the beach, looking over at the tall seaside buildings.

The following year, 1871, Monet and his family fled to London to escape the Franco-Prussian War. It was whilst he was here that he met artists, such as Camille Pissarro (1830-1903), with whom he developed the Sociéte anonyme des artistes peintres or Impressionism movement. During this time, Monet took pleasure in painting the recently built Houses of Parliament whilst also experimenting with different effets. After it was safe to return to Paris, Monet continued to paint important buildings, including the Pont Neuf and those along the Boulevard des Capucines.

At the end of 1871, the Monets moved to Argenteuil, a commune in the northwestern suburbs of Paris, approximately 15 kilometres from the city centre. This was useful for Monet who was often exhibiting with the Impressionists and needed to be within reach of the capital. Argenteuil was continuously being repaired and updated after the damage caused by the Franco-Prussian War, and its population was rapidly increasing. As a result, Monet was able to record the developments as they occurred, painting the modern houses, bridges and factories.

Of course, Monet also continued with his more natural landscapes, as seen in The Ball-shaped Tree, Argenteuil (1876), which was lent to the National Gallery from a private collection specifically for the Monet & Architecture exhibition. This tidily balanced composition was actually one of Monet’s final artworks in Argenteuil before the family relocated to the village of Vétheuil. It reveals two large houses in the distance set within walled gardens. The main feature of the painting, however, as the title suggests, is the ball-shaped tree that stands in front of them and is carefully reflected in Monet’s signature water aspect.

Travelling to and from the city, Monet was a frequent passenger at the Gare St-Lazare which was fairly modern, having only been built in 1837, although it was enlarged and extended at the end of the 1860s. Monet was given special permission to paint the station, which he did several times, exhibiting at least seven canvases in the third Impressionist exhibition. The Gare St-Lazare (1877) is unlike anything Monet had chosen to focus on before. Instead of a broad landscape or a picturesque location, the painting reveal a dirty, smoke-filled modern construction. The steam trains are also an unusual subject for the artist.

Another painting that went against convention, was Monet’s The Rue Montorgueil, Paris (1878), which was produced on a portrait canvas. The French government had declared 30th June 1878 a national holiday and the streets of Paris were full of people taking advantage of the day to hold drunken celebrations. From a balcony, Monet painted the long street overflowing with excited crowds, the buildings covered with bright tricolour flags. The blue, white and red dominate the composition, making it appear busy and untidy.  Yet, when viewed from a distance, the outlines lose their blurriness, resulting in a fascinatingly elaborate composition.

During the final three decades of Monet’s career, he visited and painted in three particular cities. After the untimely death of his wife Camille, Monet and his sons moved to a large house in Giverny, a village in Normandy, with another woman, Alice Hoschedé (1844-1911) and her six children in 1883. It was here that Monet’s famous water lily paintings were made. Almost a decade later, Alice and Monet married shortly after returning from the city of Rouen on the River Seine.

Whilst in Rouen, Monet was enamoured with its 12th-century gothic cathedral of which he produced at least thirty paintings. Rather than present landscapes as he had done in other cities and villages, Monet chose to concentrate on the cathedral facade, working on different effets caused by the position of the sun during different points of the day. One canvas, although brighter in colour, was probably produced mid-morning rather than when the sun was at its peak on account of the shadows, which bring out the features of the architecture.

In contrast, the painting of Rouen Cathedral at sunset appears to be a blurry copy of the previous painting. Seen from a distance, the muted colours have an impressive effect, however, up close, the painting feels incomplete and rushed. Nonetheless, Monet was not attempting to produce a precise study of the cathedral, he was examining the play of fading light upon the building.

In 1899, Monet took the opportunity to return to London, a city he had enjoyed so much on his last visit. On this occasion, Monet travelled alone, staying on the sixth floor of the Savoy Hotel, which at this point was fitted with balconies, providing the perfect position for Monet to paint the iconic buildings he could see from his suite. Depending on which way he positioned his chair, Monet had an excellent view of Waterloo Bridge and the Houses of Parliament.

Again, Monet’s focus was on effets rather than the buildings in question, painting in different lights at different hours. At the time, the many London factories often caused the city to be shrouded in smoke and fog, which along with the sun, created a hazy atmosphere. The vast changes in the British climate can be seen by comparing a painting of Waterloo Bridge on a clear day with one produced on a foggy day, the orange sun struggling to pierce through the smog.

Likewise, Monet’s paintings of the Houses of Parliament varied enormously due to the fog, sunrises and sunsets. In some versions, the neo-Gothic architecture is shown as a pronounced silhouette, whereas, in the foggier version, the tower blends into the clouded background.

The final city Monet visited was Venice in 1908, where he stayed for two months with his wife Alice. Whilst Alice wished to go out and enjoy the magical city, Monet wanted to paint the important buildings and their reflections in the water of the canals. Just like the Rouen and London pictures, Monet disregarded the numerous tourists, painting only the architecture and water, his focus, as always, on the intensity of effet. These paintings, as well as those from the previous cities, have an other-worldly quality due to the unique use of light.

Two buildings Monet was particularly interested in were the 17th-century church Santa Maria Della Salute, which he could see from the opposite side of the Grand Canal, and the Venetian Gothic Doge’s Palace. Both these buildings are instantly recognisable from their unique structure, however, once again, Monet was not interested in this. The various lights altered the sharpness of the buildings depicted; some appear blurred, whereas, others are much clearer.

The unfortunate thing about all of these paintings today is they are rarely shown together, as Monet intended. One gallery may own a version that was painted on a clear, sunny day, whereas, another may only have access to a foggy scene, thus not showing Monet’s skills as a painter of buildings. In order to appreciate the paintings fully, they need to be displayed together so that the different effets can be compared and contrasted. Luckily, the National Gallery was able to provide a couple of different copies of each building for the Monet & Architecture exhibition.

Venice was the last city Monet painted; his eyesight was deteriorating and he was reluctant to undergo a cataract operation. As a result, he was often unable to work. After Alice died in 1911, Monet tended to stay at home, painting in his garden. In 1914, at the start of the First World War, Monet remained in safety at Giverny, painting large canvases of Nymphéas (waterlilies). He continued as best as he could, wearing corrective glasses to aid his vision, until his death in December 1926 at the age of 86.

The National Gallery’s Monet & Architecture provided a new way of looking at Monet’s work. Instead of perceiving him as an en plein air French Impressionist with a penchant for waterlilies and poppies, the Gallery provided a different insight, introducing the non-artistic to the term effets and the result of focusing on atmosphere instead intricate details. This was the first exhibition of its kind and the National Gallery did an excellent job.

Monet & Architecture closed on 29th July 2018, however, there are many exciting exhibitions to look forward to in the near future. Visit the National Gallery’s website for details.