Havering Palace

Once upon a time, in an Essex village called Havering-atte-Bower (now part of London), sat a palace. Many kings stayed in the palace during their travels around the country until it was abandoned in 1686. Today, nothing remains of the palace, and not many people know it ever existed. Fortunately, records of the building still exist, and the Romford Historical Society is determined to keep the history of Havering Palace alive.

According to Havering Museum, people inhabited Havering-atte-Bower during the Saxon times. In the 7th century, Sigeberht the Little, the King of Essex from c. 617-653, built either a wooden hunting lodge or palace. Naturally, this building disintegrated over time.

The second palace was built during the 24-year reign (1042-66) of Edward the Confessor. There is no proof the king stayed at the palace, except for a local legend. Allegedly, during one visit, the king came across a beggar asking for money. Edward regrettably told him, “I have no money, but I have a ring,” which he handed to the beggar. Some claim this is how Havering got its name: “have a ring”. It is more likely the name is derived from Hæfer, a Saxon landowner. The far-fetched tale continues, claiming the beggar later gave the ring to some pilgrims, telling them, “Give this to your king, and tell him that within six months he shall die.” Suspicious of the claim, the pilgrims asked the beggar who he was, to which he replied, “St John the Evangelist.” Six months later, Edward the Confessor died.

According to the Domesday Book, completed in 1086, the manor or palace belonged to Earl Harold in 1066. This record suggests the king gave the land to the Earl before he died. Upon the king’s death, Earl Harold became King Harold II (1022-1066), also known as Harold Godwinson. Harold Wood, a suburban neighbourhood in the London Borough of Havering, got its name from the king.

On 14th October 1066, Harold II died during the Battle of Hastings, and the crown and palace passed to William the Conqueror (1028-1087). The Norman king proceeded to take the surrounding land away from the previous owners. Lands included Upminster, owned by Sweyn the Swarthy; Cranham, owned by a freeman called Alwin; Rainham, owned by Lefstan the Reeve; and Berwick Farm, which belonged to someone called Aluard. William also took North Ockendon but later swapped it for Windsor, where he built Windsor Castle.

Havering Palace remained the property of the crown and nearly all the kings and queens of England used it until the 17th century. During this time, extensive building works resulted in a palace with at least 26 rooms, a chapel, several kitchens, a gatehouse and an inner courtyard.

In 1262, King Henry III (1207-72) granted Havering Palace to his wife, Eleanor of Provence (1223-91). From then on, Havering Palace belonged to the subsequent queen consorts and queen dowagers until Jane Seymour’s death in 1537. The word Bower in the name Havering-atte-Bower may stem from the queens’ presence in the area. One meaning of bower is “a woman’s private room or bedroom”, although another source suggests atte-Bower meant “at the royal residence.”

King Edward III (1312-77) made over 30 visits, frequently staying for weeks at a time. In 1358, Edward held a Marshalsea Court at Havering Palace for five months and allowed locals to air their grievances. Traditionally, a Marshalsea Court let the domestic staff of the royal household express their views, but not usually members of the public.

Richard II (1367-1400) also met with members of the public at Havering Palace, but under less favourable conditions. In 1381, some of the rebels involved with the Peasant’s Revolt came to Havering Palace to ask for mercy. Despite their pleas, Richard sent the majority to trial and execution. On another visit to the palace in 1397, the king organised the murder of his uncle, Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester (1355-97). Richard ordered Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk (1366-99), to ambush his uncle while riding in Epping Forest. The Duke of Norfolk owned the Romford manor of Mawneys and is honoured by the street name Mowbrays Road in Collier Row.

Henry IV (1367-1413) is reported to have stayed in Havering Palace, and it is where his second wife, Joan of Navarre (1368-1437), spent her final year before passing away in 1437. Following the death of Henry IV, Joan’s stepson Henry V accused her of witchcraft and imprisoned her for many years in Pevensey Castle, Sussex, and later at Leeds Castle, Kent. Six months before his death, Henry V (1386-1422) released Joan from her imprisonment.

In 1465, King Edward IV (1442-83) issued a royal liberty charter in Havering, which gave residents freedom from taxation. The charter also allowed the area to establish a jail and employ local magistrates. The liberty was formed of eight wards: Romford Town, Harold Wood, Collier Row, Noak Hill, Havering(atte-Bower), Hornchurch Town, North End and South End (South Hornchurch). Gallows Corner, Romford, is named after the liberty’s execution site.

During the reign of Henry VIII (1491-1547), extensive work took place on the Palace, costing over £280 (over £145,600 today). This equated to 9300 days wages of the average skilled tradesman.

By the 1530s, Havering Palace needed at least five keepers, including Keeper of the Outwoods, Keeper of Havering Park, Paler of Havering Park, Keeper of the South Gate and Keeper of the Manor. The building and surrounding land needed constant attention and repairs. Before Elizabeth I (1533-1603) visited in 1568, a team of seven carpenters, four bricklayers and two plumbers were employed to make the palace fit for a queen.

It is not certain if Elizabeth’s father, Henry VIII, stayed in the palace, but he certainly hunted in the area. Havering Palace belonged to Henry’s first three wives until their deaths, or in the case of Catherine of Aragorn (1485-1536), her divorce. Following Jane Seymour’s (1508-37) death, the future Edward VI (1537-53) used part of the palace as his nursery.

During her youth, Mary I (1516-58) lived at Havering Palace amongst many other locations. Elizabeth I may also have spent time in Havering as a child, and in 1561, received a translation of a religious book from Greek to Latin by Sir Anthony Cooke (1504-76), who lived nearby at Gidea Hall.

Elizabeth believed moving from one place to another involved less maintenance and less cost, so she frequently visited Havering Palace when in Essex. She also stayed nearby at Ingatestone Hall, Loughton Hall and St Osyth Priory and gave her legendary speech at Tilbury to 5,000 soldiers on the eve of the Spanish Armada in 1588.

Havering Palace needed significant repairs each time Elizabeth visited. In 1594, new rafters were installed, gate posts rehung, and the lime and sandstone bricks treated to make the building watertight. In the latter stages of her reign, Elizabeth made Havering Palace a lodging for Ladies of Honour, such as Frances Newton, Baroness Cobham (1539-92). Lady Cobham served as a Lady of the Bedchamber and was one of Elizabeth’s closest friends.

Elizabeth’s heir, James I (1566-1625), frequently stayed at Havering Palace, but usually for only one night at a time. The palace now belonged to the king’s wife, Anne of Denmark (1574-1619), who was awarded a new jointure estate after becoming Queen Consort. Her estate included Somerset House in London, Hatfield House in Hertfordshire, Pontefract Castle in West Yorkshire, Nonsuch Palace in Surrey, and the palace in Havering-atte-Bower. This was more than had been granted to any former King’s wife.

James I allegedly preferred to stay at Theobalds House in Cheshunt on the other side of Epping forest when staying in the area on hunting expeditions, yet invited his noble companions to stay at Havering Palace. One Scottish courtier, George Home, 1st Earl of Dunbar (1556-1611), went hunting with the King in 1608 and wrote favourably about his stay in the palace.

The king appointed Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford (1550-1604), the Keeper of Havering in 1603, shortly after the coronation. When De Vere died, his wife, Elizabeth Trentham (d.1612), a former Maid of Honour to Queen Elizabeth, took on the role of custodian until she died in 1612.

Charles I (1600-49) was the last king to stay at Havering Palace. Records suggest he only stayed there in 1637 when his mother-in-law, Queen Marie de’ Medici (1575-1642), visited Britain. Charles slept at Havering on 8th November during his journey from London to Chelmsford, where he met the Queen of France and accompanied her to Gidea Hall. Rather than stay in the same building as his mother-in-law, Charles returned to Havering Palace for the night.

The next day, Charles and Marie de’ Medici made their way to St James’s Palace, much to the annoyance of anti-Catholic protestors who rioted in the street. The French queen stayed for a few years until Parliament paid her £10,000 to leave in 1641. The following year, Civil War broke out in England and many buildings were sequestrated by Parliament, including Gidea Hall. The South Essex Parliament committee set up their headquarters in Romford, meaning Havering Palace was no longer safe for any member of the royal household to stay.

After the execution of Charles I on 30th January 1649, Richard Deane (1610-53), one of the men who signed the king’s death warrant, began dismantling parts of Havering Palace and ordered all the mature trees in the area cut down. By the time of the Restoration of the Stuart Monarchy in 1660, Havering Palace was but “a confused heap of old ruinous decayed buildings.”

At some point during the interregnum, Havering Palace became the property of Robert Bertie, 3rd Earl of Lindsey (1630-1701), who also owned Grimsthorpe Castle in Lincolnshire, one of the few luxurious buildings not taken over by Parliament during the civil war. Despite his costly attempts to rebuild the palace as “His Majestys house at Havering”, the project was never completed and became vacant after 1686.

By 1740, Havering Palace was beyond repair and left to gradually weather away. In 1828, no walls were visible above ground, and the remains of the land were sold at public auction. The winning bidder was Hugh McIntosh (1768-1840), a Scottish engineer who made his fortune excavating the East India and London Docks. McIntosh also worked on the British Museum, Buckingham Palace, and the London and Greenwich Railway.

Whilst Havering Palace no longer exists, some of the land and buildings in the London Borough of Havering still bear its history. Bower House, a Grade I listed Palladian mansion, was built in 1729 by Henry Flitcroft (1697-1769) from some of the remains of the palace. In 1878, Hugh McIntosh’s son constructed the church of St John The Evangelist to replace the chapel that originated in Havering Palace.

Havering Palace stood roughly where the village green outside St. John the Evangelist Church is situated today. Havering Country Park, including the 100 acres of woodland, is all that remains of the palace’s surrounding land. The land was purchased by the Greater London Council and opened to the public in 1975.

The layout of the palace is uncertain, but the Romford Historical Society has built a model of Havering Palace based on a plan from 1578. The plan described a gatehouse that allowed access to a series of connected buildings, including a great chamber, the royal apartments, two chapels and accommodation for the Lord Chamberlain and Lord High Treasurer. Separate from the main rooms included kitchens, a buttery, a scullery, a salthouse, a larder and stables. To view the model, visit Havering Museum.


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Havering: More than a Museum

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When London was chosen as England’s capital city it was relatively small compared to the area we are familiar with today. It was not until buildings such as Westminster Abbey were erected that London became a place of importance. Prior to that time, Winchester was reportedly considered as the English capital when the various kingdoms united as one country in 927AD. Now, London is so large that it has been split in half: the City of London and Greater London. The latter has been divided further into thirty-two boroughs, one of which is named the London Borough of Havering.

The main towns that make up the London Borough of Havering are Romford, Hornchurch, Upminster and Rainham; but these were not always the built up areas they are today. On the site of the old Romford Brewery (now a shopping centre) is a small museum devoted to preserving the history of the borough and its original background. Although not of a considerable size and mostly run by volunteers, the museum provides an extensive history of the towns, buildings and important people that helped to develop the initial agricultural area.

Havering Museum is set out so that it is easy to navigate around the display cases and follow the information on a journey through different themes. A common theme of most historical museums is the impact of the First and Second World War. Photographs and found or donated items illustrate the war connections with the borough – although, since the London Borough of Havering did not come into existence until 1st April 1965, all historical mentions are about the areas that would eventually become one borough.

A brief history of each town has been researched and collated to provide short stories about the areas from as early as Saxon times to the present-day. Some of this is synonymous with the rest of the country and therefore is a more general history than specific to Havering. This includes developments in public transport, building material and commodities. Glass cabinets house objects from the past such as children’s toys, broken pottery, ancient coins and unidentified articles.

Throughout the year, the museum holds temporary exhibitions about specific themes or events that either affected Havering directly or would have concerned citizens in the London area in general. For example, between 15th June and 2nd September 2017, a selection of radios were on display, from early models to the more recognisable recent versions. Between the same dates was another display: 1950s Fashion. Until 4th November 2017, the museum is focusing on local men at war, which may interest those who grew up in this area during and after the conflict.

Havering Museum will mostly attract those who have lived in the area for a considerable length of time. It will evoke memories of the past but also explain some of the mysteries and questions people have about their local area. On the other hand, the museum curators have made it suitable for children to enjoy, too. There are plenty of hands on activities including puzzles and games, as well as drawers to open and inspect.

One of the activities for children (or those young at heart) is a brass rubbing of a coat of arms. With the supplied paper and crayons, visitors can create their own print of the coat of arms that once belonged to the Hornchurch Urban District Council that existed from approximately 1926 until the creation of the London boroughs in 1965. The motto “A good name endureth” has been adopted by the football club AFC Hornchurch, and they have also appropriated a similar coat of arms as their logo.

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The Havering coat of arms

The current Havering coat of arms is remarkably different to the original owned by Hornchurch. To begin with, the colour scheme is a complete contrast, using royal blue and gold as opposed to red. This is because these were the colours of the ancient Royal Liberty of Havering – a royal manor built in the 11th century.

The symbols that make up the logo represent different areas of the borough. The gate house reflects on the old Palace of Havering, which was also depicted on the crest of the former Romford Borough Council. The bull’s head is a reference to Hornchurch and the leafy design points out the boroughs connection to green areas such as Epping Forest and Hainault Forest.

The lower half of the coat of arms consists of a shield with a design to represent the sails on a windmill, for example, the one that still exists in Upminster. The ring, however, has an interesting, and only slightly believable story attached to it. Legend claims that Edward the Confessor (1003-1066) gave his ring to a beggar, who later proved to be St John the Apostle, whilst saying the words “have ring”. Hence, Havering. This may seem a bit far-fetched, but no one can prove or deny it.

The logo of the London Borough of Havering is the simple word “Liberty” which means freedom and independence. The word, however, was chosen as a reminder of the Royal Liberty.

As mentioned already, Havering did not become a borough until 1965, therefore most of the story that the museum is telling is not about the borough at all. The most interesting information is about the buildings, some of which no longer exist in the area, but whose names have lived on in the names of parks, streets and schools. Other buildings are still around today, and their history is just as surprising.

There are many churches in the London Borough of Havering but only a handful date back several centuries. St Laurence Church in Upminster is a Grade 1 listed building whose tower stonework dates back as far as the 1200s. Historians believe that a church has existed on the same site since the 7th century. St Laurence Church’s claim to fame is the first accurate measurement of the speed of sound, discovered through the use of the church bells. Another historic connection is the resting place of Alice Perrers, the mistress of King Edward III, who died in 1400.

Although St Laurence Church is considerably old, it is not the most important in the history of Havering. St Andrew’s Church in Hornchurch also dates back to the 1200s, the first record of it being recorded in 1222. St Andrew’s was once the principal church in the areas that now make up Havering. Hornchurch is an Anglicised version of the Latin Monasterium Cornutum, which translates into English as “church with horn like gables”. This is in reference to the stone bull’s head on the Eastern Gable. This may not be as old as the church itself, but records show it existed in 1384. The significance of the bull is most likely associated with the leather industry that Hornchurch was originally involved with.

Other ancient buildings in Upminster and Hornchurch include a 15th-century Tithe barn, a windmill built in 1803 by a local farmer, James Nokes, now the last remaining smock mill in London, “High House” dating from the 1700s, and Fairkytes, an 18th-century house now owned by Havering Arts Centre.

Romford, as previously mentioned, was home to a large brewery that opened in 1799. It ran for almost two centuries, finally closing in 1997. Although most of the original factory has been demolished, the gated entrance to the brewery still stands. This is where the Havering Museum can be found. The rest of the site, still known as The Brewery, is a shopping and leisure centre containing a number of shops, restaurants, a cinema and a gym.

Romford’s greatest attraction throughout history has been the market place. Since 1247, people have travelled to buy and sell in the centre of the town, beginning with sheep but now selling anything from fruit and clothes to digital gadgets. Henry III granted Romford permission to hold a market every Wednesday. This attracted a great number of people, causing the town to expand. The arrival of Romford train station increased the population further, resulting in the large town it is today – one of the largest in the districts outside of central London.

Within the marketplace stands The Golden Lion Pub. Still functioning today, it has been in business since 1440. Unbeknownst to many people, including the locals, in 1601, Sir Francis Bacon inherited the position of the landlord of the pub. This is not its only claim to fame; apparently, Dick Turpin, the English highwayman, may have spent a couple of nights there.

The history of Havering’s towns does little to put it on the map in terms of a tourist attraction, however, alongside Sir Francis Bacon, there are a few significant names connected with the area. Unfortunately, the majority of these people mean nothing to society today. The elite families that inhabited the manors of Upminster and Hornchurch disappeared along with the demolition of the buildings.

“Famous” People

  • Lady Edna Clarke Hall (1879-1979) – a watercolour artist and poet who produced illustrations for Wuthering Heights by Emily Brontë. Many of her artworks are owned by the Tate. She lived in Upminster and even painted a miniature study of Upminster Common.
  • Henria Williams – a suffragette from Upminster who died two months after the “Black Friday” disturbance in which she was injured. It is highly likely that other suffragettes lived in the area and records report that pillar boxes in Romford were set alight during one of their protests.
  • Ian Dury (1942-2000) – another Upminster inhabitant, Ian Dury was a rock-and-roll singer, songwriter and actor who rose to fame during the 1970s. His second solo studio album was titled Lord Upminster.
  • Joseph Fry – the son of the English prison reformer Elizabeth Fry, lived in Fairkytes between 1870 and 1896.
  • Francis Quarles (1592-1644) – a Romford-born poet. This is presumably where the Quarles Campus of Havering College got its name. Beware of him that is slow to anger; for when it is long coming, it is the stronger when it comes, and the longer kept. Abused patience turns to fury.”

There have also been connections with royalty throughout the past centuries. Harold Godwinson often went hunting in the forests nearby, resulting in the names of two of Havering’s smaller towns: Harold Wood and Harold Hill. Edward the Confessor gave Havering Palace to Harold, which then got passed down the royal family throughout the following centuries. Havering Palace was situated in the Havering-atte-Bower area, however, it has long since been demolished. It is believed that Elizabeth I enjoyed staying there during her reign.

It is disappointing that these buildings were not preserved for posterity. So much of our history is very quickly erased. It is only with thanks to historians and volunteers, such as those at the Havering Museum, that any information about this London borough has been retained.

Most people would travel to central London or other important towns and cities around the country when looking for some historical details. What gets forgotten is that everywhere, regardless of how big or small, has some history attached to it. It is surprising what gets dug up when people put their minds to it.

Those wanting to know more about Havering and its past must take a trip to the Havering Museum. It is open from Wednesday to Saturday between 11 am and 5 pm. It only costs £2.50 to enter and is worth the price.

Regardless of whether you live in Havering or not, think about looking into the history of the area you are from. Museums in central London will provide general details about the city, but the meaningful information will always be closer to home.

Havering Museum is a Heritage Lottery Funded project and an independent Museum run by Havering’s volunteers and supporters. Registered Charity No. 1093763

The H’Art Festival

On the 7th June 2014, as part of The H’Art Festival in the London Borough of Havering, there was a one day only art exhibition in one of the local churches. I was given the opportunity to display some of my design work, particularly work that I had voluntarily provided the church with in the past. As my work was to be exhibited in a section of the show named “Communication” I also lay out examples of work I produced during my time on my Graphic Design degree course. This included the mental health booklet I produced for my final project.

These are photographs taken at the exhibition showing some examples of my work that was displayed:

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