The History of Gardening

The Garden Museum, housed in the former church of St Mary-at-Lambeth in London, is Britain’s only museum of the art, history and design of gardens. The church, adjacent to Lambeth Palace on the South Bank of the River Thames, was deconsecrated in 1972 and scheduled for demolition. Fortunately, the building was saved when a tomb belonging to two 17th-century royal gardeners and plant hunters John Tradescant the Elder (1570s-1638) and the Younger (1608-62) was discovered in the churchyard. John and Rosemary Nicholson who found the tomb were inspired to turn the building into the world’s first museum dedicated to gardening.

The main section of the museum is on the first floor, which has been added to the main body of the church. The collection includes a wealth of information about the history of gardening and displays a collection of tools, art and other ephemera.

The Garden Museum

What constitutes a garden? Areas of land can be private, public, designed or wild, however, what makes it a garden is the activity within it. Gardens are usually maintained, cultivated or used for public and private enjoyment and recreation. The history of gardens begins in 1600, towards the end of Elizabeth I’s reign, when John Tradescant, the first great gardener, began his career, however, it was only the wealthy that could afford such privileges.

It was during the 18th and 19th century when the general public began enjoying their private gardens. Whilst farming has been a necessity throughout time, gardening for pleasure has increased rapidly over the last few centuries. Flower Shows began emerging in the North, the first taking place in Norwich in 1843; the show was dedicated to chrysanthemums. Three years later, the craze had spread across the rest of Britain.

Prizes were awarded at Flower Shows for various achievements. Gardeners competed for best flowers, biggest vegetables, neatest gardens and so forth. To begin with, these were held in small communities but today, some competitions have reached a national scale.

Advice for gardeners began being printed and distributed as early as 1826 when the first gardening magazine, The Gardener’s Magazine, was established. Initially, this was targetted at the gardeners of country estates but it soon found a more general readership. Taking advantage of this, The Amateur Gardening Magazine was founded in 1884, providing advice about plants, soil and seasons. The magazine is still published today.

Other companies soon jumped on the bandwagon, producing magazines such as The Garden Home Journal (1907), Understanding Gardening (1960s) and The Woolworth Gardener (1950s). The latter was published by Woolworths, then Britain’s biggest seller of seeds and bulbs. It included advice from many professional gardeners and boasted that it was “a guide to successful gardening for all“.

From the mid-to-late 20th century, gardening advice moved to televisions with programmes such as Gardeners’ World in 1969. The show was presented by Percy Thrower (1913-88) who had been professionally gardening since the age of 18. Thrower was known for his early work at Windsor Castle, promoting the Dig for Victory campaign during the Second World War, and designing the Blue Peter garden. In 1974, Thrower created the Master Gardener Series, providing simple guides about sowing seeds and other gardening tips.

Percy Thrower died in 1988, however, his legacy lives on in the continuation of Gardeners’ World and the introduction of other gardening programmes, such as Ground Force (1997-2002).

Growing flowers was by no means a new concept in Britain. People had kept window boxes and bought cut flowers from markets to display in their homes for hundreds of years before they began maintaining larger gardens. From the late 19th century, however, owning a garden was not just about growing plants, they became places of leisure. Croquet and lawn tennis became popular and children used gardens as a space to play and invent numerous games.

Around the same time, novelty items began to appear in gardens, for instance, the garden gnome and, later, pink flamingoes. Today, garden centres are full of traditional and contemporary sculptures specifically designed to stand on lawns or hide in flowerbeds. Since the mid-20th century, children’s playthings: swings, slides, climbing frames; have dominated lawns. Unfortunately, due to the modernisation of towns and cities, not everyone has the opportunity to own a private garden.

Fortunately, the lack of a garden does not prevent people from enjoying flowers and plants. Cut flowers have been available in London since Covent Garden Market opened in the 1630s. As modes of transport improved, different types of flowers became available at the market, for instance, daffodils from Lincolnshire, violets from Devon and, by the 1900s, carnations from southern France.

Today, florists sell flowers from all over the world, particularly from Holland. In Britain, the changing seasons control which plants can be grown throughout the year, however, thanks to air travel, it is possible to order whatever cut flowers we desire, whenever we want. The majority of roses sold in Britain, for instance, come from Kenya.

Statistically, Britain has the least native flora than any country in Europe other than Ireland. From as early as the 16th century, “plant hunters” were sent to other countries to discover foreign plants and introduce them to Britain. Snowdrops and tulips were found in the Ottoman Empire and Sunflowers arrived from Central America. Later, in the 19th century, explorers found rhododendrons and wisteria in the Himalayas.

Some of these expeditions were funded by aristocrats who wished to show off exotic plants in their gardens. Other trips were arranged for scientific reasons by the government. The plants that were gathered were brought to the botanical gardens at Kew where botanists could learn about the foreign flora and their potential economic and medical properties.

Buried in the gardens of the church/museum is Vice-Admiral William Bligh (1754-1817) who captained the Royal Navy vessel HMS Bounty in 1789. His main task was to transplant the breadfruit from Tahiti to the British colonies in the West Indies as cheap but nutritious food for slaves. The breadfruit had been found when Captain James Cook (1728-79) had sailed to Tahiti in 1769. Sir Joseph Banks (1743-1820), the founder of the Botanic Gardens at Kew, who travelled with Cook was intrigued by this “miracle food” that bore fruit for seven months of the year. The fruit could also be easily stored and dried so that it was available for the remaining five months.

At 22 years of age, Bligh accompanied Cook on his final voyage where Cook, unfortunately, was killed on the island of Hawaii. Due to his experience at sea, Bligh was chosen by Banks to captain HMS Bounty and transplant the breadfruit tree. During a five-month stay in Tahiti, Bligh and two gardeners collected a thousand cuttings of the breadfruit, however, they never managed to transport them to the West Indies. Led by Fletcher Christian (1764-93), some of the Bounty’s crew decided to take over the ship. Unable to regain control of the mutineers, Bligh and his loyal sailors rowed over 4000 miles to safety.

Fortunately, Bligh was able to return to Tahiti in 1793 aboard HMS Providence. This time, the ship reached Jamaica with 1,281 breadfruit plants. Today, the plants grow abundantly across the Caribbean.

Bligh went on to serve in the Napoleonic wars before becoming the Governor of New South Wales, Australia in 1806. Unfortunately, due to his sympathetic attitude towards the poor settlers, he was overthrown by the rich colonists. Bligh returned to England where he eventually died at home in Bond Street, London in 1817. He was buried in a tomb at St Mary’s, which had been built for his wife Betsy.

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Initially, it was only the aristocracy that could afford to purchase the plants that explorers like Cook and Bligh collected, however, in the 18th century, nurseries were set up where the general public could purchase the seeds to sow in their private gardens. These nurseries were the precursor to today’s garden centres.

Unlike the nurseries, garden centres can assist with landscaping as well as maintaining plants. Garden design is believed to be one of the most challenging forms of design. The designer must understand the properties of plants and soils as well as be able to imagine aesthetically pleasing spaces. Garden designers are not only responsible for the positioning of plants but also walls, paths and features, such as ponds and fountains.

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Plan of the Eden Project, 1998

Garden design can be studied as a profession, although many people save money by designing their family gardens. Public gardens, however, need the attention of professionals to make them safe as well as attractive for visitors. As an example, the museum displays a copy of Dominic Cole’s (b.1957) design for the Eden Project.

“Tools make the garden. We, the gardeners, may dream and scheme to our heart’s content, but with no more than our bare hands we can’t proceed far down the garden path with our imagined garden plan. We can’t even begin to make the path.”
– Christopher Thacker, garden historian

To design and maintain a garden properly, the gardener needs to have access to the right tools. Today, standard tools can be found in all good garden centres and DIY shops, however, in the 17th century, tools were made specifically for individual gardeners. For years, most gardeners relied on hand tools, however, techniques began to change in the 19th century.

In 1830, Edwin Budding invented the first lawnmower. Up until then, grass was cut using scythes or even sheep, but Budding, inspired by a factory machine for cutting cloth, developed a way to make maintaining lawns much easier.

The introduction of new materials allowed for cheaper and quicker production of garden tools. In the 1960s, the plastic flower pot became popular and plastic was also used to make watering cans. The development of rubber hoses provided an alternative, faster way of watering the garden. Putting the current war on plastic to one side, these inventions made gardening accessible for everyone, regardless of skill.

The museum contains examples of tools throughout the years, examples of seeds, gardening magazines and a wealth of information. Located at various points around the displays are information boards about several people who have contributed to the world of gardening.

Humphry Repton (1752-1818)

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Humphry Repton was the last great English landscape gardener of the 18th century. Born in Bury St Edmunds, Repton was destined for a life as a merchant until he visited the Netherlands where a wealthy Dutch family introduced him to the joys of drawing and gardening. Repton attempted a career as a textile merchant, however, he was unsuccessful and moved to a modest cottage near Romford, Essex. With no secure income to support his wife and four children, 36-year-old Repton turned to garden landscaping.

Repton’s first paid commission was Catton Park in Norwich in 1788. Despite having no experience, he became an overnight sensation. Repton began producing “Red Books” full of watercolours and text to help his clients visualise his proposed designs. The Garden Museum displays one of these books and a brief video showing Repton’s design process.

Sadly, Repton was involved in a carriage accident which left him unable to walk for the final seven years of his life. Fortunately, Repton’s work has secured his name in the history of gardening. Three roads in Romford and Gidea Park, near where he lived in Hare Road (now Main Road), have been named after him: Repton Avenue, Repton Gardens and Repton Drive.

Over the length of his career, Repton produced designs for over 70 grounds of country houses in Britain. These include Crewe Hall, Dagnam Park, Higham’s Park, Kenwood House, the Royal Pavillion, Russell Square in Bloomsbury, Stubbers in North Ockendon, Wanstead Park, Warley Woods, Wembly Park and Woburn Abbey. Jane Austen (1775-1817) referenced Humphry Repton in her novel Mansfield Park.

William Robinson (1838-1935)

William Robinson was an Irish practical gardener who popularised the English cottage garden. He began gardening at an early age when he became the “garden boy” for the Marquess of Waterford at Curraghmore, County Waterford. Following this, he worked for an Irish baronet in Ballykilcavan, County Laois where he was in charge of several large greenhouses. Possibly due to an argument as rumours suggest, Robinson fled to England in 1861 where he found work at the Botanical Gardens of Regent’s Park.

Robinson specialised in native British wildflowers and was sponsored by Charles Darwin (1809-82), David Moore (1808-79) and James Veitch (1792-1863) to become a fellow of the Linnean Society, dedicated to natural history. Robinson left Regent’s Park in 1866 to write for The Gardener’s Chronicle and The Times, and in 1871 he established the gardening journal, The Garden. Contributors to The Garden included John Ruskin (1819-1900), William Morris (1834-96) and Gertrude Jekyll.

Through his magazines and subsequent books, Robinson challenged the traditions of gardening, introducing new ideas, such as the herbaceous border containing a mixture of plants, and the wild garden where sections were allowed to grow naturally without too much interference from the gardener. His concept of the English Flower Garden was influenced by simple cottage gardens once favoured by landscape artists.

“The gardener must follow the true artist, however modestly, in his respect for things as they are, in delight in natural form and beauty of flower and tree, if we are to be free from barren geometry, and if our gardens are ever to be true pictures….And as the artist’s work is to see for us and preserve in pictures some of the beauty of landscape, tree, or flower, so the gardener’s should be to keep for us as far as may be, in the fulness of their natural beauty, the living things themselves.”
– William Robinson, The English Flower Garden, 1883

Gertrude Jekyll (1843-1932)

(c) Elizabeth Banks; Supplied by The Public Catalogue Foundation

Portrait of Jekyll by William Nicholson

Gertrude Jekyll was one of the most influential gardeners of the 20th century. Born in Mayfair, London, Jekyll studied as an artist and became associated with the Arts and Crafts Movement before moving on to designing interiors. In her 40s, she progressed to designing gardens.

Jekyll’s gardens were influenced by the artistic training she had received. She was particularly inspired by J.M.W. Turner (1775-1851), Impressionism and the use of colour. As well as designing over 400 gardens in Britain, Jekyll developed a colour theory, which she published in Colour Schemes for the Flower Garden and other works.

Edwin Lutyens (1869-1944), an English architect, partnered with Jekyll who designed the landscapes for his impressive buildings. Lutyens designed Munstead Wood, the house where Jekyll lived in Surrey; Jekyll, of course, created the garden.

Unfortunately, many of Jekyll’s gardens are now lost or destroyed, however, her fame lives on. In 1897, Jekyll won the Victoria Medal of Honour, which was followed by the Veitch Memorial Medal and George Robert White Medal of Honour in 1929. Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-94), a friend of the Jekyll family, used their surname in his famous novella Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1886).

Ellen Ann Willmott (1858-1934)

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“My plants and my gardens come before anything in life for me, and all my time is given up to working in one garden or another, and when it is too dark to see the plants themselves, I read or write about them.”

In 1892, Ellen Ann Willmott inherited Warley Place at Great Warley in Essex on the death of her father Frederick Willmott. The 33 acres of land had become the family home when they moved there in 1875. When she was 21, Willmott was permitted by her father to plant an alpine garden, which included a gorge and rockery.

Willmott employed 104 male gardeners, insisting that “women would be a disaster in the border”, who helped her to grow more than 100,000 different plant species. Recognised for her efforts, Willmott was elected to the Royal Horticultural Society’s narcissus committee and received the Victoria Medal of Honour – a medal that only two women ever receive, the other being Gertrude Jekyll.

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Ceratostigma willmottianum

Expeditions to China and the Middle East were financed by Willmott to bring exotic species to Warley Place. Willmott spent so much money on Warley that she died penniless. Warley Place was abandoned to the wild, although it is now managed by the Essex Wildlife Trust.

Ellen Ann Willmott is remembered by over 60 species of flowers, which have either been named after her or Warley Place. Examples include Rosa willottiae, Ceratostigma willmottianum and a species of sea holly nicknamed “Miss Willmott’s Ghost”.

Graham Stuart Thomas (1909-2003)

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Graham Stuart Thomas

“Whether you look upon gardening as a hobby, a science or an art, the fundamental point returns again and again: that we garden because of the beauty of plants.”
– Graham Stuart Thomas, The Art of Planting, 1984

Graham Stuart Thomas declared he would become a gardener at the age of six when he was given a fuchsia as a gift. At seventeen, he joined the Cambridge Univerity Botanic Garden and then the Six Hills Nursery in Stevenage in 1930. The following year, he became the foreman at the nursery T. Hilling & Co (Hillings) in Surrey.

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‘Graham Thomas’ Rose

Whilst working at Hillings, Thomas met Gertrude Jekyll who became his mentor. She taught him how to combine plants into colour patterns and inspired him to collect samples of roses. This led to several books: Old Shrub Roses (1955), Shrub Roses Of Today (1962) and Climbing Roses Old And New (1965).

Thomas began working with the National Trust at Hidcote Manor in Gloucestershire in 1948. He later worked at Sissinghurst Castle, Kent; Mount Stewart, Northern Ireland; Mottisfont Abbey, Hampshire; and Sezincote House, Gloucestershire.

Graham Stuart Thomas is remembered for his many books and a species of honeysuckle and rose have been named in his honour.

John Tradescant the Elder (1570s-1638)

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John Tradescant the Elder was an English gardener and collector. Not much is known about his early life other than he began his career as head gardener to Robert Cecil (1563-1612), 1st Earl of Salisbury at Hatfield House, Hertfordshire. Following this, Tradescant worked for George Villiers (1592-1628), 1st Duke of Buckingham, remodelling his gardens at New Hall in Essex. Later, in 1630, Tradescant was made the Keeper of his Majesty’s Gardens, Vines, and Silkworms by King Charles I (1600-49).

Tradescant travelled to other countries and continents in search of seeds and bulbs. Places he visited include Arctic Russia (1618), the Levant (1620), the Low Countries (1610 and 1624), and France (1624). As well as looking for plants, Tradescant assembled a collection of curiosities of natural history, that he displayed in a large house known as “The Ark”, which later opened as a museum – the first-ever museum, in fact – to the public: the Musaeum Tradescantianum.

The Ark

The curiosities from “The Ark” are now housed in the Garden Museum, although they have no link to gardening. Tradescant intended the collection to be a representation of the nature, art, religions and ways of life of all nations on earth. Items include an alabaster figurine of St Fiacre, the patron saint of gardening; Roman coins; medallions; reindeer antlers; a cast of a dodo head; shells; and the vertebrae from the spine of a North Atlantic whale.

St Mary-at-Lambeth

A church has been on the same spot on the south bank of the Thames since before the Norman conquest. The crypt of the present building and some of the burials date back over 950 years. The church, whilst not the original, is a combination of medieval and Victorian architecture and is the oldest structure in the London Borough of Lambeth.

A stone tower, dating to 1377 although repaired in the 19th century, is still intact and accessible to visitors. One hundred and thirty-one stairs lead up to the roof of the tower, which provides an impressive view of London.

The churchyard was a place of burial until it was closed in 1854. An estimated 26,000 burials took place, although many were interred without tombs or monuments. As well as the Tradescant and Captain Bligh, notable names in the churchyard include Anne Boleyn’s mother Elizabeth (née Howard, c.1480-1538), Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk (1443-1524), Richard Bancroft (overseer of the production of the King James Bible, 1544-1610), and Frederick Cornwallis, Archbishop of Canterbury (1713-83).

The Garden Museum is open Monday – Sunday, 10:30 – 17:00. Tickets are £10, although some concessions are available. The entrance fee includes both the museum and the tower. A tower only ticket is available for £3. More information is available on their website: www.gardenmuseum.org.uk

The Beth Chatto Gardens

One of the most influential plantswomen in Britain, Beth Chatto OBE VMH transformed an overgrown wasteland into an extensive, beautiful garden. Continuing to oversee the developments well into her 90s, Beth created a pleasant place to visit, attracting people from all over the world. Whether visitors intend to have a peaceful walk followed by relaxing in the tearoom or arrive with the intention of purchasing from a wide range of plants, the Beth Chatto Gardens are a place that can be enjoyed by all. Since Beth’s death on 13th May 2018, her family and 50 plus workers are determined to keep the gardens alive and continue to develop and build on Beth’s aims and visions. The Beth Chatto Gardens are a legacy and a memorial of the fantastic, green-fingered gardener.

Situated near Elmstead Market, Colchester, the Beth Chatto Gardens are home to over 2000 varieties of plants. Split into several smaller gardens, habitats suitable for all types of plants have been developed, allowing native and exotic flowers and shrubs to blossom. From drought-tolerant plants to those that live near water, Beth Chatto has them all, however, the state of the land when Beth first purchased it was a completely contrasting, sorry sight.

 

 

Betty Diana Little was born in Good Easter, Essex in 1923 to Bessie (née Styles) and William Little, who were both keen gardeners. In her 20s, Betty began using the name Beth, by which she is now recognised throughout the world. Initially, Beth trained to be a teacher and worked at Hockerill College, Bishop’s Stortford from 1940 until 1943, when she married her husband Andrew Chatto.

Like Beth, Andrew was passionate about plants and worked as a fruit farmer until 1960. To begin with, the Chattos and their two daughters lived in Braiswick, Colchester, however, Beth was disappointed that she was unable to have a proper garden on account of the quality of the soil. The Chatto family fruit farm in Elmstead Market, however, had far more potential for a garden, so Beth convinced her husband to build a new home on the land.

Unlike other fruit farms in the area, the Chatto’s farm was less successful owing to the dryness of the soil in some parts and wetness in others. As a result, only plants such as wild blackthorn, willow and brambles had been able to grow naturally. Nevertheless, Beth was determined for her garden to be a success, and today, only the ancient oaks along the boundary survive from the original farmland.

Instead of being discouraged by the mix of gravelly soil and boggy ditches, Beth sought out plants that would thrive in these areas, rather than fight a losing battle trying to get anything else to grow. Today, the Beth Chatto Gardens span five acres of land with a variety of plant environments, including sun-baked gravel, water, woodland, heavy clay and alpine planting.

 

 

On arrival, visitors enter the newly developed Gravel Garden, which was once used as the car park. It was originally formed as an experiment by Beth Chatto and her team of workers. Famous for never needing to be watered, the free-draining soil is perfect for the Gardens’ selection of drought-tolerant plants, including ornamental grass and a tall eucalyptus tree, a plant native to Australia. Of the whole Beth Chatto Gardens, it is these plants that coped best during Britain’s July-August 2018 heatwave.

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Mount Etna Broom

Another species of plant in the Gravel Garden is the genista aetnensis or Mount Etna Broom, which is endemic to the Italian islands of Sicily and Sardinia. This Mediterranean shrubby vegetation typically needs stony soil to thrive and a sunny climate, i.e. little rain. Although Colchester is not the driest of places (heatwave notwithstanding), the light gravelly soil prevents the rain from having a disastrous effect on these dry-thriving plants.

Once past the main entrance to the gardens, where only those who have paid can enter, the path leads to the Water Garden which surrounds four cloud-shaped ponds in which many water plants are growing. All the plants in this garden need moisture in order to survive and, although they can be watered by hand, the roots can get what they need directly from the ponds.

 

 

Unfortunately, the plants and foliage in the Water Garden have been hit heavily by the recent heatwave. Although the water source is always available, in July the sun had scorched the petals and leaves, drying them up to make it look like autumn had come early. This garden is better suited to cooler springtime temperatures.

Following on from the Water Gardens is a long shady walk under tall ancient oak trees. The plants that are seen here grow well in the shade, out of the direct sunlight. These include ferns and various carpeting plants, which brighten up the surroundings. The Beth Chatto Gardens’ leaflet tells visitors to look out for strands of Solomon’s Seal, whose roots bear depressions which resemble royal seals.

Other interesting roots to look out for are the “knobbly knees” or pneumatophores of the swamp cypress. These can be seen above ground in areas near the newly developed area of clay soil near the reservoir. These plants are prevalent in places such as the Everglades in Florida and are not native to England, however, the damp soil in this area of the Beth Chatto Gardens is a great place for them to thrive.

 

 

On the far side of the Gardens is the Woodland Garden, which, as can be inferred from its name, is full of trees. Most of these are the remaining oaks from the original fruit farm but beneath them are shade-loving flowers, perennials and shrubs that provide a number of different colours. In the summer months, whilst there may be less blossom and flowers, there are numerous shades of green ranging from light to dark depending on the plant.

The Woodland Garden is the most peaceful section of the Beth Chatto Gardens. Out of the way of the entrance, it is easy to imagine you are in a country park or forest rather than a cultivated garden. It is also a great place for wildlife, particularly insects, who can live in the bug houses made of dead wood.

Other areas to investigate are the New Planting and Scree Garden. The former contains recently planted shrubs that had been started in the Nursery until strong enough to survive outside. The Scree Garden is made up of a series of raised beds where easy-to-grow alpine plants can prosper despite the stony growing conditions.

Some parts of the Gardens are restricted to staff either because they are developing new areas or because the ground is used as stock beds. Over 60,000 plants are grown on site every year, which are either placed in the Gardens or sold. Most of the plants in the garden can be found for sale in the nursery, which has been running successfully since 1967. Many of these are offcuts or seedlings and may not look like the full-grown versions in the Gardens, however, staff working in the nursery are very good at identifying plants from photographs visitors have taken and can help people make the correct purchase.

Staff are also keen to help gardeners find plants that will thrive in the particular type of soil they have at home. There is a selection of plants that have been carefully selected to suit dry, shady, or damp gardens, therefore, rarely does anyone go away empty handed.

 

Beth Chatto is not just known for her lovely gardens, she is known throughout the horticultural community for her amazing knowledge of plants. Throughout her career as a gardener, Beth won many awards, the first being as early as 1977. After the hard work focused on the Gardens was beginning to pay off, Beth was able to concentrate on entering flower competitions, such as those at the Chelsea Flower Show.

Flower arranging was something that Beth became interested in during the 1950s when a neighbour encouraged her to become involved with the art. Soon, she became one of the founder members of the Colchester Flower Club, which was only the second flower club established in Britain. Combining her love of flower arranging with her ever-growing garden, Beth was persuaded to produce a display for the Royal Horticultural Society Show in 1975 for which she was awarded the RHS Flora Silver Medal.

The silver medal was only the beginning of Beth’s success; the following year, she entered the RHS’s Chelsea Flower Show and won another Flora Silver Gilt medal, however, in 1977, she did even better. For ten consecutive years, Beth Chatto was awarded Chelsea Gold Medals for her display of unique plants for dry and damp areas, which at the time were remarkably different to any other exhibit.

A decade after her first award at the Chelsea Flower Show, Beth had another victorious year in which she was awarded the Lawrence Memorial Medal, the Victoria Medal of Honour, and an Honorary Degree by the University of Essex. By this point, Beth’s fame had spread even further through the publication of several books: The Dry Garden (1978), The Damp Garden (1982) and Plant Portraits (1985). Later, Beth penned more popular gardening books, which can still be purchased in the Gardens’ gift shop. Her final book Beth Chatto’s Woodland Garden was published in 2002.

As she became known throughout the world, Beth began going on tours, giving lectures about gardening. The first tour she participated in was in America during 1983, which was followed by British Columbia, Canada and the North West States of America the following year. In 1986, Beth went back to America to give more lectures, however, in 1987 she stayed closer to home, touring Holland and Germany. Eventually, Beth travelled as far as Australia for her lectures, before giving her final one in Paris in 1990.

Although her lecturing days were over, Beth was still being recognised for all her hard work. In 1995, Beth was elected to the International Professional and Business Women’s Hall of Fame for outstanding achievements in introducing plant ecology to garden design. This studies the effects of environmental factors upon the abundance of plants, for which the Beth Chatto Gardens are famous.

In 1998, Beth was presented with the Lifetime Achievement Award by the Garden Writer’s Guild for her numerous books, but her most prestigious award was given in 2002: an OBE in the Queen’s Birthday Honours. In 2009, she was awarded another honorary doctorate, this time from Anglia Ruskin University, then in 2011, was named a Paul Harris Fellow by Colchester Trinity Rotary Club. Her final award was presented in 2014:  the Society of Garden Design’s John Brookes Lifetime Achievement Award.

“I wish to set up an Education Trust in my name to carry forward my passion for
plants and ecological approach to all age groups.”
– Beth Chatto

By now, Beth was already into her 90s and was no longer doing any physical gardening, although she was often seen driving around on a mobility scooter to check out the hard work of her devoted staff and volunteers. Knowing she would not live forever, Beth was determined for the garden to live on without her and wished to ignite the passion for gardening within the younger generation. She also believed that gardening was the key to a healthy planet.

In 2015, Beth set up an Education Trust in her own name to encourage people of all ages to become interested in ecological approaches. The charity offers courses, workshops and events for school parties, individuals and families throughout the year, including RHS qualifications. Many of these courses take place in the Willow Room situated near to the garden entrance. The building can also be hired out for special celebrations, wedding receptions and wakes.

Although her death is still fresh in the minds of many people, there is no risk of Beth Chatto being forgotten. The Gardens will continue to open to the public, courses will still run, and staff will always be hard at work. Apart from at Christmas and New Year, the Beth Chatto Gardens are open every day and can be accessed for a fee ranging between  £4.50 and £8.45 depending on the season.

Visitors do not need to wander the gardens every time they visit, some people, who just want to purchase plants from the Gardens’ impressive stock, can enter the Plant Nursery and Gravel Garden for free. Also worth visiting is the Tearoom and Gravel Garden Restaurant, which specialises in freshly baked home-made scones, sausage rolls, homemade cakes and afternoon teas. Coffee lovers can enjoy a cup of the unique Beth Chatto Gardens coffee, which has been specially blended by the team.

Whilst it is sad to lose a life, Beth Chatto will live on through her garden, inspiring new gardeners, young and old, throughout the world. Whether you have green fingers or not, the Beth Chatto Gardens are worth a visit just to see the hard work that Beth and her workers have put in for almost 60 years.

More information about opening times, ticket prices and upcoming events can be found on the website: www.bethchatto.co.uk 

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Ingatestone Hall

Sans Dieu Rien

“Sir William hath at his own great costs and charges erected and builded a new house, very fair, large and stately, made of brick and embattl’d.”
Thomas Larke, 1566

33380324_10213994863657112_5217312055391944704_nIt is not often that stately homes stay in one family. Many throughout England now belong to councils, trusts or associations and are seen as relics of the past. The Petre family, however, have retained their grade one listed manor house through fifteen generations. Ingatestone Hall, built during the reign of Henry VIII (1491-1547), maintains its Tudor appearance and is owned by the 18th Baron Petre.

Since 1992, parts of the house have been open to visitors during the summer months, including the ten acres of enclosed gardens. The south wing remains off limits and contains the living apartments of the heir of Ingatestone Hall, Dominic Petre. Either with a private tour or exploring on one’s own, guests can discover the history of the Petre family and their connection to the history of Great Britain.

 

 

 

Set slightly outside the village of Ingatestone, Essex, five miles from Chelmsford, and twenty-five from London, the Hall is easiest to travel to by car, however, the view of the building is obscured by trees. After parking in a meadow and starting to walk towards the Hall, visitors are welcomed by a red outer court building supporting a turret and one-handed clock engraved with the motto Sans Dieu Rien (without God nothing). Passing through the archway below brings you to the inner court, still referred thus despite the demolition of the west wing.

Built with red bricks, the manor house contains many features typical of Tudor architecture. Some of these are the originals and others were installed in the 20th century when attempting to convert the building back into its initial appearance, these include the many mullioned windows. Crow-stepped gables and ornate chimney pots decorate the roof, and a tall, crenellated turret containing an octagonal staircase stands to face the courtyard. It is unusual to see a private residence with crenellations because these are traditionally reserved for defensive structures, such as city walls and castles. Permission had to be granted by the king before the first owner could add this characteristic to his home.

NPG 3816,Sir William Petre,by Unknown artist

Sir William Petre (c1505-1572)

The first owner was Sir William Petre (c1505-72) who bought the estate around 1540, however, the history of the land goes back much further. In circa AD 950, King Edgar granted Barking Abbey land in Yenge-atte-Stone (the old name for Ingatestone) to build the Abbey of Our Lady & St Ethelburga. The Nunnery remained in use until 1535 when Henry VIII ordered the Dissolution of the Monasteries.

The Dissolution of the Monasteries was an anti-Catholic process that took place between 1535 and 1541. The monarch suppressed all Roman Catholic properties, taking their money and belongings as well as their buildings. This, in part, was a result of the Protestant Reformation in Europe, however, for Henry VIII, it was more likely a monetary issue.

William Petre, a lawyer from Devon, first came to Ingatestone as Thomas Cromwell’s (1485-1540) assistant. Cromwell was ordered to lead the Dissolution of the Monasteries and it was Petre’s job to create a record of each establishment’s possessions and persuade the inhabitants to peacefully surrender to the king. One of the places Petre was assigned to was the Abbey of Our Lady & St Ethelburga, a building with which he quickly fell in love.

Taking out a mortgage, which he quickly paid off, Petre bought the grange from Henry VIII for £849 12s 6d. Unhappy with parts of the building, Petre demolished it and built the house which is essentially what visitors can still see today. William Petre, knighted in 1543, lived the remainder of his life at Ingatestone Hall with his wife and children. Henry VIII appointed him Secretary of State, a position he kept throughout the reigns of four Tudor monarchs. On his death, his eldest son John (1549-1613) inherited the house, becoming the first Baron Petre.

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Stone Hall

The tour of Ingatestone Hall begins in the Stone Hall, so called due to its flagstone flooring, which was recreated in the 20th century to replace the Great Hall lost in the demolition of the West Wing of the building. In the Georgian era, the decor had been modernised, however, Lady Rasch, the wife of the 16th Baron Petre, restored the room, which would have originally been three rooms, to the traditional Tudor appearance. Although electrical lighting has been added, the hall is quite dark due to the oak-panelled walls, giving visitors a sense of life in the 16th-century.

The Dining Room, also decorated with oak-panels, is set up as it would have looked at the beginning of a family meal. The table is set with cutlery, crockery and candlesticks, making the meal look like a grand occasion. The most interesting feature in the room, however, is the Mortlake Tapestries that adorn the walls around the table. Although they have become discoloured with time, the tapestries, which may have once belonged to James I and Charles I, are still impressive pieces of woven art.

The Old Kitchen with its wide fireplace is another interesting part of the house. This room would have been full of serving staff preparing meals but today it is no longer used as a kitchen. A cabinet holds examples of old kitchenware from past generations and the walls are filled with paintings of horses in the style of George Stubbs (1724-1806). Rich families often commissioned paintings of their prized horses, even more so than portraits of their own children.

 

 

Upstairs, the Master Bedroom has been refurbished to appear as it may have looked when the first few generations lived in the house. The Tudor oak-panelling is also seen here but it has had some additions over time, including a walk-in wardrobe. In contrast, another room on the first floor reveals the Georgian decoration the Hall wore in the 18th century. Instead of oak panels, the room is covered in pine, a much lighter colour to its predecessor.

Finally, visitors reach the Great Gallery, which is a lengthy 29 metres, containing 40 portraits of the previous Barons Petre and their families. Display cases reveal various items, including clothing, letters, and old Catholic objects that may have once been hidden in priest holes in the walls of the building. Two priest holes were found by accident by past members of the family. These can be peered into by visitors as they make their way around the house.

The Petre family were recusants that refused to accept the new Anglican church. For their safety, they kept their Roman Catholic practices hidden from the public, holding covert masses in their private chapel. The priest holes may have been used to store their Bible and so forth in order to prevent nosy visitors from discovering their secret. They also helped to shelter several priests who were being hunted by Anglican lawmen. One of these priests was St. John Payne (1532-82) who had been arrested at Ingatestone in 1577. It was thought that he returned to the Hall after being released from the Tower of London where he may have made use of one of the priest holes. Although the Petre family succeeded in concealing him within their walls, Payne was later arrested elsewhere and beheaded in 1582. The clothes he wore on the scaffold are on display in the Great Gallery, complete with blood stains.

 

 

After visitors have finished exploring the Hall, they may relax in the Summer Parlour, or the Ballroom as it was in the original plans. Here you can order teas, sandwiches and large slices of cake, freshly prepared by the kitchen staff. The room has a positive atmosphere and is a great place to regroup after a tour or a walk around the gardens.

 

 

With splendid scenery and a beautiful building, Ingatestone Hall is a popular location for weddings. Various rooms can be used for the ceremony and reception and the Summer Parlour is the perfect size to cater a meal for a large party. At other times of the year, exhibitions or plays may be put on by local artists, which always attract a large number of visitors.

Every now and then, the current Baron Petre or his son Dominic may make an appearance. Until recently, John, the 18th Baron Petre had a big role in public life. Until a recent birthday, he held the title of Lord Lieutenant of Essex and has had opportunities to meet the Queen and the previous President of the United States, Barrack Obama. In 2016, he was appointed Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order. Lord John Petre will forever be associated with a large number of local organisations, such as Brentwood Arts Council; Brentwood Shakespeare Company; Ingatestone and Fryerning Horticultural Society; Ingatestone and Fryerning Angling Club; and as the President of St John Ambulance Essex, to name but a few.

Putting aside its history, Ingatestone Hall also has several claims to fame. It has been hired numerous times by film companies for a range of productions. These include: Lovejoy (BBC TV: 1992); Lady Audley’s Secret (Warner Sisters: 1999); an advertisement for British Gas (2001); Blue Peter (BBC TV: 2002 & 2005); a music video for Snow Patrol; Bleak House (BBC TV: 2005); and Jekyll and Hyde (ITV: 2015).

Ingatestone Hall is well worth a visit for both locals and those living further afield. Historians will love seeing the Tudor building and learning about the previous members of the Petre family. Others will enjoy the gardens and tea room as part of a peaceful day out. Children are also catered for with special events throughout the summer. Details of these can be found on their website. Due to it being a private residence, access to the Hall is limited. The opening times are from noon to 5 p.m on Wednesdays, Sundays and Holiday Mondays between Easter until the end of September. Visitors are advised to check the website before arriving to make sure the Hall will be open.

ADMISSION PRICES (2018)
ADULTS £7.00
PENSIONERS £6.00
CHILDREN (5-16) £3.00
UNDER FIVES FREE