Simeon and the Green Witch’s Treasure

Ahoy there, Simeon! The Cutty Sark restoration team have come across a strange document wedged in behind the ship’s figurehead. A map of an island and set of directions allude to “The Green Witch Treasure”. But which witch? Do they mean Greenwich? And what treasure? Can you follow the trail for a spell and see where it leads – and maybe you’ll earn some bounty in return?

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After receiving a copy of the map and directions from Treasure Trails, Simeon the red-haired gibbon (toffee-coloured, if you please) wasted no time in getting himself to Greenwich to discover the mystery of “The Green Witch Treasure”. (Naturally this included a trip on the Emirates Airline and the Thames Clipper; after all, he is a very adventurous gibbon.) From the Cutty Sark to the Royal Observatory, Simeon raked over the ground, climbed up steep hills (he was carried) and investigated several buildings. He studied the Meridian line, appreciated the architectural beauty of the Queen’s House, Naval College, and the Maritime Museum, and resisted the temptation to jump into the River Thames (it was a hot day). Eventually, Simeon unearthed the location of the treasure but, along the way, he found and learnt about the hidden treasures of Greenwich.

Greenwich, located 5.5 miles from the heart of London, is notable for its maritime history and for giving its name to the Greenwich Merdian (0° longitude) and Greenwich Mean Time. It was the birthplace of many of the Tudor Royals, who once spent time at the Palace of Placentia. During the reign of Charles II (1630-85), the palace was demolished and a new building erected, now used by the University of Greenwich.

With reference to a place named Gronewic in a Saxon charter of 918 AD, it is believed the area of Greenwich has been populated for over 1000 years. It is recorded as Grenviz in the Domesday Book of 1086, and later as Grenewych in the Taxatio Ecclesiastica of 1291.

As Simeon discovered at the top of Greenwich Park after a long uphill walk, the ground is full of huge mounds and craters, making it appear as though they were the foundations of an old house. Further research reveals these are tumuli, also known as barrows or burial mounds. These are thought to be early Bronze Age barrows (3000 BC), which were later appropriated by the Saxons in the 6th century AD.

During the reign of Æthelred II (the Unready; 966-1016), a Danish fleet (i.e. Viking) anchored on the River Thames and camped on the hill in Greenwich for three years. During this time, they attacked the county of Kent and took the Archbishop of Canterbury as their prisoner. This was Archbishop Alphege (or Ælfheah; 935-1012), who was kept prisoner for seven months until he was stoned to death for his refusal to allow his ransom of 3,000 pieces of silver to be paid.

Shortly into Simeon’s treasure trail, he entered St. Alfege Passage and came across a church bearing the sign “open”. Being the lazy little gibbon that he is, Simeon decided it was a great opportunity for a rest but what he found inside was so interesting that he barely sat down at all! The church is built on the site where Saint Alfege was allegedly killed and a memorial stone marks the spot inscribed with the words “He who dies for justice, dies for Christ.”

The current building, which is undergoing restoration work, was not the first church on the site. No one knows when the first was built but records state the second building was built during the 13th century. It is highly likely that Henry VIII (1491-1547) and other Tudor royals were baptised in this church and one of the stained glass windows depicts this event.

Another stained glass window depicts Thomas Tallis (1505-85), the “father of English church music”. He was the organist at St. Alfege Church during the reigns of four Tudor monarchs: Henry VIII, Edward VI (1537-53), Mary I (1516-55) and Elizabeth I (1533-1603). On display is an old organ that may date to Tallis’ time. This was replaced after the Second World War, however, the current organ was transferred to the church from Eton College in the year 2000.

The second church building was destroyed in 1710 when a gale caused the medieval roof to collapse. A new church was proposed and Nicholas Hawksmoor (1661-1736), a pupil of Sir Christopher Wren (1632-1723), was chosen to be the architect. The building was completed by 1714, however, on 19th March 1941, an incendiary bomb hit the roof of the church and destroyed a lot of the architecture. In 1946, rebuilding began but many of the original features had to be replaced.

Fortunately, much of the altar survived the bombing during the Second World War. The iron rails were designed by Jean Tijou, a French Huguenot ironworker who also produced screens for Hampton Court and St. Paul’s Cathedral. The original trompe l’œil painting around the alter by James Thornhill, famed for his work in the Painted Hall at the Old Royal Naval College, had to be carefully restored.

There were many things that caught Simeon’s eye around the church, including a Coventry Cross made from the medieval nails of Coventry Cathedral, which had been destroyed during World War II. Simeon enjoyed seeing the stained glass depicting Thomas Tallis and Henry VIII’s baptism. There were also windows commemorating the marriage of Princess Mary (1496- 1533), the fourth child of Henry VII (1457-1509), to the Earl of Suffolk, and General Charles George Gordon (1833-85), who was baptised there in 1833.

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At the back of the church is a memorial to General James Wolfe (1727-59), who is also remembered with a statue at the top of Greenwich Park. General Wolfe was 32 when he died after leading his troops to victory at the siege of Quebec in 1759. Wolfe, who had moved to Greenwich in 1738, worshipped at St. Alfege Church and is subsequently buried in a vault in the crypt. Thomas Tallis is also buried in the crypt, as is Sir John Julius Angerstein (1735-1823), the “father of Lloyds of London”, and Samuel Enderby (1719-97), the founder of Samuel Enderby & Sons. Other famous worshippers at St. Alfege’s include Reverend John Flamsteed (1646-1719), the first Astronomer Royal; MP for Canterbury Sir James Creed (1695-1762), for whom the steep street Simeon climbed is named; and Sir John Lethieullier (1633-1719), a sheriff of London. In Charles Dicken’s (1812-70) novel Our Mutual Friend, a wedding takes place in St. Alfege Church.

Up near the statue of General Wolfe in Greenwich Park is Charles II’s Royal Observatory. Initially, this was the site of a tower erected by Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester (1390-1447), the half-brother of Henry V (1386-1422). It was at this observatory that the Greenwich Meridian was determined. A prime meridian and its antimeridian create a full circle that divides the planet into two sections: the Eastern Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere. The Greenwich Meridian passes through the United Kingdom, France, Spain, Algeria, Mali, Burkina Faso, Togo, Ghana and Antarctica. There is an opportunity to stand on the spot that the (invisible) line passes through, however, Simeon was in too much of a hurry to find his buried treasure to stop and join the crowds of people awaiting their turn.

From the highest point in Greenwich Park, the only hill overlooking the Thames on the eastern approach to London, there is a magnificent view over London. Simeon spotted the towers of Canary Wharf in the background, however, he was most impressed with the buildings at the bottom of the hill. One of these buildings is called the Queen’s House and was commissioned by the wife of James I (1566-1625), Queen Anne of Denmark (1574-1619). The house, designed by Inigo Jones (1573-1652), is one of the surviving buildings belonging to Greenwich Palace. Unfortunately, Anne did not live to see the final outcome and Charles I (1600-49) gave the completed house to his wife Queen Henrietta Maria (1609-69).

The Queen’s House did not remain Queen Henrietta Maria’s house for long due to the English Civil War, which began in 1641. During this time, Greenwich Palace was used as a prisoner-of-war camp as well as a biscuit factory. Later, throughout the Interregnum (1649-1660) the palace and park were seized for the Lord Protector’s use as a mansion. By the time of the Restoration, the remains of the old Palace of Placentia had been pulled down and Charles II began to oversee the construction of new buildings, including the aforementioned Royal Observatory.

Prince James (1633-1701), the Duke of York and future king, was the person to propose the idea of creating a Royal Naval Hospital in the buildings closest to the Thames, however, it was not until his daughter Mary (1662-94) was on the throne that the work began. The construction of the hospital was eventually finished in 1696.

A century later, the Queen’s House, as it is still known, was transformed into the Royal Naval Asylum, a school for children orphaned by war, by George III (1738-1820). This was later amalgamated with the Greenwich Hospital School before eventually being renamed the Royal Hospital School by Queen Victoria (1819-1901) in 1892. As well as the Queen’s House, the school inhabited the building next door, which is now the National Maritime Museum.

The National Maritime Museum was opened during the reign of George V (1865-1936). The Royal Hospital was moved to Suffolk so that the museum could inhabit the buildings in Greenwich. Forming part of the Maritime Greenwich World Heritage Site and Royal Museums Greenwich, the museum contains some of the most important items in relation to the history of Britain at sea. The two million items include maritime art, maps, naval manuscripts and navigational instruments. Two of Britain’s greatest seamen are also celebrated in the museum: Admiral Horatio Nelson (1758-1805) and Captain James Cook (1728-79). Although the museum is free to enter, Simeon passed up the opportunity in favour of finding his hidden treasure.

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Despite his persistence in continuing the treasure trail, Simeon had time to give a cursory glance to the granite statue of William IV (1765-1837) at the back of the museum. The statue was made by Samuel Nixon (1804-1854) and represents the King in the uniform of a high admiral. Although this statue is impressive, another artwork had caught Simeon’s eye.

Situated on a plinth outside the new Sammy Ofer Wing of the National Maritime Museum is Yinka Shonibare MBE’s (b.1962) Nelson’s Ship in a Bottle (2010). Originally commissioned for the fourth plinth in Trafalgar Square, this scaled-down replica of Nelson’s HMS Victory sits protected from the elements in a large, corked glass bottle. HMS Victory was the ship on which the war hero died during the Battle of Trafalgar on 21st October 1805. The impressive ship had 80 cannons and 37 sails, although they would not have been as richly decorated as the sails in the model. Shonibare chose to use a pattern inspired by Indonesian batik, which was mass-produced by Dutch traders during Nelson’s lifetime. This alludes to the negative usage of ships such as these, which enabled colonialism, industrialisation, and the misuse of cultural appropriation. Today, this model is one of the most photographed artworks in London.

At the exit of Greenwich Park near Park Row, our little friend was distracted by several enormous anchors. Each one was once used upon a British ship and they now serve as a memorial to the ships used between the 18th and 20th century. Early seafarers would have used stone, wood or lead to make their anchors, however, as seen here, they soon discovered that iron served the best purpose.

The most common shape of an anchor is known as the Admiralty-pattern and consists of a shank with a stock and ring at one end and a crown with flukes at the other. A length of cable would lower the anchor by its ring into the water and the flukes on the crown would dig into the seabed, eventually pinning the ship in place. Anchors on display include an Admiralty-pattern recovered off the coast of Sheerness in Kent dating to approximately 1750, an Admiralty-pattern from the Kathrena Anne (1805), a single-fluke anchor from 1820, and a 4-tonne anchor from the Royal Yacht Victoria and Albert (1899).

The one that intrigued Simeon the most was the bright red and yellow, many-toothed cutterhead from a cutter suction dredger. Although more than heavy enough to be used as an anchor, the cutterhead’s purpose was to remove materials from the seabed in land reclamation projects in the Far East. It eventually became obsolete in 1995.

Simeon’s treasure trail eventually led him to the riverfront where Thames Clippers and other boats sail throughout the day. From Greenwich Pier, a number of riverboat services take passengers to Westminster via Canary Wharf, the Tower of London and Embankment. For those who wish to travel to the opposite bank of the Thames, a foot tunnel was designed by civil engineer Sir Alexander Binnie (1839-1917) and opened in 1902. The tunnel exits in Millwall on the Isle of Dogs, which was once home to the West India Docks. The entrance to the tunnel can be found inside a glass-domed shaft beside the famous Cutty Sark.

The Cutty Sark is a British clipper ship built in 1869 that has been preserved on dry land for the benefit of visitors and conserving British maritime history. Although a major fire destroyed a large part of the ship in 2007, a restoration team returned the Cutty Sark to her former glory.

Simeon, of course, had no time to pay the interior of the Cutty Sark a visit, however, he was content to view the impressive ship from the outside. From there, Simeon had a great view of Nannie Dee, the ship’s figurehead, which has been attributed to carver Fredrick Hellyer of Blackwall. The Cutty Sark was named after Nannie Dee, who’s nickname was Cutty-sark, a term that means “short undergarment”. Her story can be found in the poem Tam o’ Shanter (1791) by Scottish poet Robert Burns (1759-96).

Her cutty sark, o’ Paisley harn,
That while a lassie she had worn,
In longitude tho’ sorely scanty,
It was her best, and she was vauntie.
Ah! little kend thy reverend grannie
That sark she coft for her wee Nannie
Wi’ twa pund Scots (’twas a’ her riches)
Wad ever graced a dance of witches!
– Tam o’ Shanter

The figurehead is completely white, with hair flowing back as though moving at speed. In her outstretched left hand is a clump of long black hair from the tail of a horse. In the poem, Tam has come across a group of dancing witches and falls in love with Nannie Dee. Whilst watching them from afar, he forgets himself and calls out “Weel done, Cutty-sark!” Alerted to his presence, the witches chase him and, although he survives, Nannie Dee managed to grab hold of his horse’s tail and pull it off before he had crossed the river to safety.

“Fascinating,” thought Simeon. “But on with the trail!”

Eventually, Simeon located the position of his much sought after treasure. Completely elated, he was not concerned that he never found out who the elusive “Green Witch” was; perhaps she was Nannie Dee? On his two and a half-mile trek, Simeon enjoyed discovering the history of Greenwich and finding some hidden gems. As well as seeing all the historical buildings and taking in the view from the top of Greenwich Park, Simeon had the opportunity to have photos taken with various statues, explore the town centre and admire the Georgian houses while he was being carried up Croom’s Hill. He was also able to walk through Greenwich Market and look at (but not buy) a range of wares.

It is believed that a market has existed in Greenwich since the 14th century. The present market, however, dates back to 1700 when a charter was agreed by Lord Henry, Earl of Romney (1641-1704) that the Commissioners of Greenwich Hospital could hold a market every Wednesday and Saturday. Today, the market runs daily and is surrounded by Grade 2 listed buildings. In the early 1900s, a roof was added to the market place so that sellers could have a dry place to sell their articles at all times of the year. Selling predominantly antiques, fashion and food, the market opens daily at 10am.

Treasure Trails allows people to explore areas around the United Kingdom at their own pace whilst solving clues in order to find fictional treasure or solve a murder mystery. Simeon thoroughly enjoyed the Greenwich Treasure Trail and wholly recommends it, although be aware that there is a rather steep hill. Thanks to the intricate trail, Simeon and friends discovered things about Greenwich that they would have otherwise missed. To top it all, Simeon is now the owner of yet another Treasure Trail certificate!

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Read about Simeon’s previous adventures here:
Simeon goes to Amsterdam
Simeon and the Bloomsbury Treasures
Simeon Visits Rainham Hall
Simeon, the Cliffs and the Sea
Simeon Encounters Antwerp
Simeon Investigates Covent Garden

For more information about Treasure Trails and the areas they cover, please visit their website.

Such Ships as These

They mark our passage as a race of men. Earth will not see such ships as these again.
-John Masefield, Ships, 1912

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Cutty Sark

Museums, castles, churches and other historic buildings are often taken for granted in current society. Although ancient structures may be admired for their antiquated architecture, they are frequently merely regarded as part of the landscape. Some museums successfully convey the past to the current generation, but there are some bygone days that a modern exhibition cannot do justice, for instance, maritime history.

The United Kingdom is fortunate enough to have retained a number of ships and boats that had a significant role to play in British nautical history. From the Tudors up until the World Wars, ships and boats have been a great asset to our island nation, and life today would not be the same without their existence. Of the few that have survived to date, Cutty Sark, berthed in Greenwich, is the most famous and valuable of all.

The Cutty Sark‘s history is so eventful, it is astonishing that she remains fairly intact today. Opened to the public by Queen Elizabeth II in 1957, and now listed as a World Heritage Site, the ship is visited by a considerable number of tourists each day, teaching them about the numerous journeys she undertook in her heydey.

In parallel with today, England of the 1600s relied on countries throughout the world for a bulk of commodities and comestibles. Looking at labels on products goes to show the distance some of the items have travelled, and quite often this information receives as little as a fleeting thought. Before planes and high-speed vehicles, foreign products were not so easy to come by, but, in order to transport the desired merchandise, ships such as Cutty Sark were built.

In the late 1650s, Charles II’s future wife, Catherine of Braganza, made drinking tea fashionable amongst English nobility. This sparked a greater desire for the leaves resulting in the construction of clipper ships to sail to China to exchange silver for the precious cargo.

Cutty Sark was commissioned by a retired ship’s master, John Willis, in 1869, one of the first composite ships to exist, Until this date, most ships were built entirely of wood, however, Cutty Sark is an amalgamation of a wrought-iron framework and wooden planks. As a result, the boats could hold more cargo and go much faster than their predecessors.

The Cutty Sark experience (Adult £13.50, Child £7) provides visual and physical explanations about the ship’s famous voyages, the trials she faced and replicates the conditions sailors would have lived in for weeks on end. Although being able to view and touch enables education, there are some details that cannot be easily visualised, for example, why is Cutty Sark named thus?

It is common for all ships to receive a name or title on completion of construction, usually in honour of a place or person. In John Willis’ case, all his previous ships had been christened after rivers and villages near his hometown in the Scottish Borders, however, the name Cutty Sark broke away from this tradition. Obscurely, it comes from a Robert Burns poem, Tam O’Shanter (1791), which features a group of witches, one of whom is wearing a “cutty sark, o’ Paisley harn“, or, in plain English, a short dress.

As weird as it may be to name a ship after a piece of clothing, it explains the significance of the hair wielding figurehead who clung proudly to the prow. Dressed in a “cutty sark” with arm outstretched is Nannie, the young witch seen wearing a short dress in Tam O’Shanter. In the narrative poem, Tam, on horseback, is chased across Ayrshire by the wild witch. Although he reaches safety, his unfortunate horse loses her tail in Nannie’s grip. To coincide with the story, every time Cutty Sark was in port, a bundle of rope was placed in the figurehead’s hand to represent the horse hairs.

Nannie is now located in the Sammy Ofer Gallery underneath the 936-ton clipper ship. Originally, Cutty Sark sat on a concrete ground, but after restoration from 2006-12, she was raised over three metres in order to take the weight off her precious wooden hull and iron framework. This has resulted in an extensive area in the dock for exhibitions and refreshments at the Even Keel Café. Most significantly, the dock has become the permanent location of the world’s largest collection of merchant ship-figure heads. It is here that Nannie is located amongst several wooden friends.

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Nannie and friends

Excluding Nannie, the 50-odd figures came from the Long John Silver Collection owned by Sydney Cumbers (1875-1959) who purportedly earned himself the nicknames Long John and Captain Silver on account of his distinctive eye-patch. His passion for marine artefacts led him to collect over 100 figureheads and models. In 1953, he donated his precious hoard to the Cutty Sark. These figures come from a variety of ships and many have little known about them. As well as being fascinatingly prepossessing, they serve as a memorial to those who served in the merchant service.

The curators at Cutty Sark know the names of 49 figureheads in the collection, and the majority either share it with the name of the ship they featured on, or are from unknown whereabouts. Most are female, however, there are a few male figures representing people of certain prestige.

Amongst the well-known titles are Hiawatha (from a ship of the same name), Elizabeth Fry, Florence Nightingale, King Solomon (the figurehead aboard the Ophir), Benjamin Disraeli, William Gladstone, William Wilberforce, William Pitt the younger, Abraham Lincoln and Garibaldi (incidentally from Garibaldi). Presumably, these figureheads were named in honour of these celebrities, either during their prime – for instance, the prime ministers – or after their deaths.

 

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Florence Nightengale

 

Florence Nightingale was the figurehead of the Florence Nightingale, a merchant schooner believed to have sailed and traded in the Mediterranean. Details of who owned her and when she was built remain unknown, the ship no longer exists. However, it can be assumed that it rode the waves after the Crimean War (1856) because Florence Nightingale was not publically known beforehand.

Apart from the loss of an arm, Florence Nightingale is in excellent condition. Wearing an off-white blouse and skirt and a blue jacket, she is depicted as a prim, virtuous woman. Her hair is fashioned in a bun as she gazes off into the distance with her head slightly to the left, whilst her right and only remaining arm rests upon her hip. Although lacking a bonnet, the figure and hairstyle strongly resemble the photographs and paintings of the young nurse.

Ships and their figureheads were also named after fictional or mythological characters. Some names make more sense than others, but similarly to Cutty Sark, they may have been named after the owners’ favourite stories. Sir Lancelot is one example of this, from England’s greatest legend, and another is King Leonidas, a Spartan warrior from the BC500s. King Leonidas allegedly died on the Battlefield of Thermopylae, thus being a suitable character to adorn a ship named after the Greek location.

From mythology, Amphitrite was chosen to be the figurehead of a ship that remains unidentified. As the sea-goddess and wife of Poseidon, Amphitrite was a fitting character to embellish a merchant ship. It is feasibly possible that the owner named the figurehead, and perhaps the ship, after this fairly unknown mythological individual for luck and safe passage across the tempestuous seas.

The figureheads come in all sizes and weights, perhaps in relation to the style and dimensions of the ship. Two particularly large busts of women stand out from the collection under Cutty Sark. One of these has regrettably been undesignated and nothing is known about where she was found or who she belonged to. She has Snow White-like features – pale skin and black hair – and wears a light blue dress. Upon her head, she has two tiaras which suggest she is someone of high esteem, but who remains a mystery.

The other distinctively large female is also anonymous, however, there are some theories about where she came from. Dubbed the Spanish Woman, she is perhaps the oldest figure in the Long John Silver Collection. Sydney Cumbers’s notes reveal that she was found at the Deptford Dockyard in London and may have come off the British ship, Georgina, who sailed during the 19th century. Her dress – red with a ruffled collar and high waistline – is similar to the fashion from 1800-1812. In spite of that, it is unclear why Cumbers gave her the title of the Spanish Woman.

For whatever purpose you decide to visit Cutty Sark, whether it be for the figureheads or the ship itself, be prepared to be impressed and come away with a wealth of knowledge. It is suitable for both adults on their own and those with children, however, be wary of uneven floors and low hanging ceilings. During school holidays, special events for children may be taking place, so make sure you check online before you visit. Remember to bring your camera along for some unique photo opportunities.