Shattered World, New Beginnings

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Copyright © 2017 Senate House Library, University of London

Tuesday 31st October 2017 marks the 500th anniversary of the day Martin Luther sent his Ninety-Five Theses disputing the power of indulgences to the archbishop of Mainz, Germany. This sparked a movement that would alter the world for ever and end the control the Catholic Church held over Europe: the Protestant Reformation. To commemorate the dawn of the reordering of the Christian religion, many establishments throughout the country (National Portrait Gallery, British Museum) are holding exhibitions, events, and workshops to bring to light the significant impact the movement had in England and the way it shaped the lives we lead today. The Senate House Library is one of these many institutions hosting an informative exhibition.

Founded in 1836, the Senate House Library is the central library of the University of London and one of the largest academic research communities in the country. Usually holding two free exhibitions per year, Reformation: Shattered World, New Beginnings is the second public display of 2017 and will run until the middle of December. Making the most of their two million book collection, the Senate House Library has pulled written material and medieval manuscripts from their vast collections, as well as borrowing or purchasing from the archives of other libraries, to put together a display to illustrate the crucial changes in England during the 16th century.

Change is not made without inconvenience, even from worse to better.

– Richard Hooker (1554-1600), Church of England Priest

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Vom christlichen Abschied aus diesem tödlichen Leben des ehrwirdigen Herrn D. Martini Luther Bericht – Justus Jonas, 1546

Martin Luther (1483-1546) was a German monk and professor of moral theology at the University of Halle-Wittenburg. Through his own preaching, Luther challenged the Catholic sentiment that freedom from God’s punishment for sins could be purchased – occasionally with monetary donations –  with the idea that salvation and eternal life are given as a gift from God for the believer’s faith in Jesus Christ. His academic debate criticising the ecclesiastical corruption was written up in his Ninety-Five Theses (1517) and sent to Albert of Brandenburg (1490-1545), the Archbishop of Mainz on 31st October 1517. Allegedly, Luther may have also have posted the Theses on the door of All Saints Church, Wittenberg as well as other churches in the area.

Martin Luther refused to abandon his strong views and was eventually excommunicated by Pope Leo X and condemned as an outlaw by Emperor Charles V. However, with the recent mechanisation of printing technology, the Ninety-Five Theses was already spreading rapidly throughout Europe.

At this time, England was under the rule of the second Tudor monarch, the notorious Henry VIII (1491-1547). Initially, Henry debunked Martin Luther’s ideas by writing, or at least commissioning, Assertio Septem Sacramentum (In Defence of the Seven Sacraments) (1521)This earned Henry the title of Fidei Defensor (Defender of the Faith) from the pope, however, he was soon to fall from the pope’s good graces.

For centuries, England had been a Catholic country with most aspects of life revolving around the Church. Although Henry was king, the Pope held higher power, therefore when Henry wished to divorce his first wife, Catherine of Aragon (1485-1536), in order to marry Anne Boleyn (1501-36), permission was denied. Enraged, Henry took matters into his own hands, utilizing Luther’s theory to overthrow authority and establishing himself as the Head of the Church of England in 1534.

Martin Luther, however, remained persona non grata after calling Henry a pig and a drunkard in retaliation to the king’s opinion that Luther was a malicious, evil and impudent monster. Although Protestantism entered England for selfish reasons, it soon spread quickly as the population’s literacy increased allowing people to read texts and form their own opinions. Soon, art and literature were adopting secular themes, theatres became popular, and religion took a back seat.

The manuscripts flew about like butterflies.

– John Aubrey (1626-1697), English antiquary

 

The exhibition at the Senate House Library is divided into four “galleries” (“display cases” would be a better term): Culture, Society, Communications and New World Order. The exhibition in general focuses on the English Reformation rather than the Protestant Reformation as a whole, therefore, each glass cabinet is filled with books and pamphlets relevant to the events and changes in London and the rest of England.

It is fortunate that enough medieval and historical texts remain in order to put together a sufficient display. Not only are they extremely old, many books were destroyed in an attempt to abolish Catholic ideas. Placing Catholic texts alongside Protestant publications emphasises the dramatic impact reform wrought from both a religious point of view and a cultural one.

Previously, English culture had been determined by the church. Expressions of religious ideas were communicated through literature, paintings, and music, the latter often being liturgy accompanied by music. Church services were conducted and the Bible was written in Latin regardless of the congregation’s comprehension. Martin Luther, and thus Protestants, believed that services should be in a language that all can understand, therefore, in England, preachers were ordered to present their sermons in English. Likewise, the Bible and other religious texts were converted to English and made available to the general public. Many translations of the Bible were produced, culminating in 1611 with the King James Version, which, to this day, remains the best selling Bible throughout the world.

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Bassus of the Whole Psalmes in Foure Partes

Thomas Cranmer (1489-1556), the Archbishop of Canterbury under Henry VIII and Edward VI, helped to spread the scriptures in English with the development of The Book of Common Prayer (1549).

Thomas Stenhold and John Hopkins revolutionised religious music by rewriting the Book of Psalms in paraphrased English and fitting the vernacular to short metrical stanzas. This allowed for communal singing where lyrics could easily be heard and understood, unlike the Latin versions intoned by a priest.

With printing presses on the rise providing cheaper and faster ways of producing books and pamphlets, it was impossible to prevent the widespread of these new forms of religious texts. However, it was not only the new Protestant Church that made use of this new development.

New authors and playwrights came to light as their novels and literature rapidly spewed out of printing houses. With religion losing its strong grip on society, writers were quick to explore new themes and secular ideas. This period of time brought forth names who have now been immortalised, such as Edmund Spenser (1552-99), The Faerie Queen, 1590), Nicholas Udall (1504-56), John Bale (1495-1563), and, of course, William Shakespeare (1564-1616).

Art was also to be impacted heavily by the English Reformation. European painters, such as Hans Holbein the Younger (1479-1543), arrived in England bringing with them new ideas, which lead to the English Renaissance. This opened up a range of new directions for young artists to explore including the ancient classics, history painting, genre painting, still life, and portraiture. No longer needing to paint for religious purposes, artists could now produce “art for art’s sake”.

To destroy all without consideration, is and will be unto England forever, a most horrible infamy among the grave seniors of other nations.

– John Bale (1495-1563), Bishop of Ossory

Despite society entertaining secular ideas, London was a very dangerous place to be open about personal beliefs, and opinions. Not everyone was happy to accept Protestantism and many Catholics attacked and ridiculed the new form of worship. However, with Henry VIII being head of the Church of England, he tried to dictate everyone’s beliefs, imprisoning and beheading many who refused to comply. People had to make a difficult decision: follow God or follow the King? Antagonism between the two Christian denominations lasted for many years – the Gunpowder Plot of 1605 was a botched attempt by Catholics to overthrow the Protestant king.

Whilst it may have been easy in the past for Rome to control the Catholic faith with the use of incomprehensible Latin and strict rules about what was right and wrong, the introduction of an alternative threw everything into disarray. As more people became educated and religious texts distributed in English, individuals were able to form their own opinions and question everything they had previously been taught.

Determined to abolish Catholicism, Henry VIII ordered the closure of monasteries and destruction of libraries in an attempt to eradicate any Catholic text. It is for this reason that the items at the Senate House Library are particularly rare because very few survived. Visitors are lucky to be able to view a copy of the Book of Hours, an early 15th-century devotional for Roman Catholic use.

Whilst monasteries were shut down, most of the buildings remained standing and were quickly converted into Anglican churches or became theatres and places of entertainment. Westminster Abbey became a cathedral under Henry’s instructions, later becoming a Collegiate Church during the reign of Elizabeth I.

Although this exhibition is focused on the English Reformation, it is important to understand that other European countries were having their own difficulties as a result of Martin Luther’s Theses. In 1562, France descended into the War of Religion, a civil conflict that was primarily fought between the Roman Catholics and the Reformed Protestants or Huguenots. Lasting 36 years, this war is the second deadliest religious conflict recorded in history with over 3,000,000 fatalities.

England, with its newly established Protestant Church, became a safe haven for many Huguenot émigres who escaped over the channel. It is estimated that over the years 50,000 Huguenots found refuge in England – a significant number that resulted in even more changes to English society. As London’s population increased due to the addition of refugees, European trades and skills were introduced to the English people. The French brought new talents such as silk weaving, watchmaking, and silversmith, making it far easier for England to obtain objects that previously had to be shipped from abroad.

Preachers may be silenced or banished when books may be at hand.

– Richard Baxter (1615-1691), English Puritan church leader

It is generally believed that the introduction of the printing press in 1476 led to the increase in literacy and development of the written English language, however, they never became popular until the Reformation. It was not until people wanted to spread God’s word in a language everyone could understand that the printing press became a vital invention. Thousands of pamphlets, as well as books, were printed and distributed, including those from anonymous sources who wished to get their opinion across. The curator at the Senate House Library likens this to today’s impact of social media.

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A Nunnes Prophesie, 1615

An example of an anonymous pamphlet displayed in the exhibition is A Nunnes Prophesie, a form of propaganda. It claims that the pope had become the ruler of the world through evil means, but his enemies, having become as strong as unicorns, would destroy him with God’s help.

 

 

 

Look to your conscience and remember that the theatre of the world is wider than the realm of England.

– Mary, Queen of Scots (1542-1587)

The guide book produced to accompany the exhibition in the library jokingly says that taking England out of Catholic Europe was the country’s first “Brexit”. Many enemies were formed with countries that had previously been friendly, in particular, Spain. At the beginning of the Tudor reign, Spain and England had a close relationship, but by the time Elizabeth I became queen, things were quite the opposite. In 1588, the Spanish Armada set sail with the intention of making England Catholic again, however, poor planning on the Spanish behalf proved the attempt futile.

On the other hand, countries further abroad developed positive ties with Protestant England. By the end of the 17th-century, the East India Trading Company had been set up and new products were constantly being brought in from Asia. This introduction of foreign trade, similarly to the Huguenots, completely changed English society and culture. Without this development, life would be very different today.

The Senate House Library has done what it can with its limited resources to mark the 500th anniversary of the Protestant Reformation. Although it is understandable that any tangible evidence of the Reformation is hard to come by, or even nonexistent, the mini display does come across as a little sad and disappointing. In order to learn about the Reformation, it is more beneficial to purchase (or download for free) the exhibition guide book, which provides visuals as well as information of every item on display.

Nonetheless, thanks to the Senate House Library, people of today’s world have the opportunity to learn about the civil conflicts of the past which have greatly impacted the way we currently live. Primarily about religion, the English Reformation altered the way people think, encouraged education, and introduced many new art forms and ideas. Although a worrying and dangerous time for the people who lived through it, they deserve recognition and gratitude.

Reformation runs from 26 June to 15 December 2017. Free entry to all, but please register before hand.

 

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Picasso: Coloured In

 

Toward the end of 2016, the National Portrait Gallery in London held an exhibition on the works of the master of modern art, Pablo Picasso. Displaying a lifetime of artwork, the gallery provided a concise biography of Picasso’s life, providing the opportunity to learn about the artist as well as his paintings. The gift shop at the exit of the exhibition sold mementoes of the display, including a colouring book containing 20 black and white versions of some of the major works of Picasso during the 20th Century.

Pablo Picasso: To Colour In was published in April 2016 with the intention of using the popular fad to educate readers/colouring book enthusiasts about the techniques and secrets of the great master. Each work included in the book has a brief paragraph explaining what it is (in case you cannot tell) and a few details about Picasso’s intentions or the events happening in his life at the time.

Although Pablo Ruiz Picasso was Spanish, he lived in France for the majority of his adult life. As a child, he lived in various areas of Spain beginning with Malaga where he was born on 25th October 1881. He lived here with his parents and two sisters, Dolores and Concepción. However, Concepción, or Conchita as she was known, died very young, a tragedy that had a great impact of Picasso.

Picasso’s father, a museum curator and teacher of fine art, encouraged his son to begin painting. Picasso received lessons in technique and academic style, completing his first painting, The Picador, in 1889, at a mere eight years old. Later, after moving to North-Western Spain, Picasso completed his initial training at La Lonja Academy in Barcelona.

Picasso attempted further education in Madrid at the San Fernando Royal Academy – a competitive college to get into – however, was forced to return to Barcelona after a severe bought of scarlet fever. This did not prevent Picasso from continuing his artistic journey and he was soon producing compositions that impressed local academies.

His surname, Picasso, evokes images of abstract art, however, there was a steady development of style and technique until he reached the more obscure results. Picasso’s colour palette was key in his varying phases, the first being predominately blue. What triggered this period was the sudden loss of a close friend to suicide in 1901. Devastated, Picasso painted a death portrait, which was spread through with blue tones. During this “blue period”, Picasso painted many melancholy subjects such as beggars and hospital patients. It was during this time that Picasso began to branch out into other forms of artistic expression, for example, sculpture.

By 1904, Picasso had moved and settled in Montmartre, France, where he had a small studio of his own. After three years of excessively using the colour blue, Picasso entered a new phase now known as the “rose period”. Naturally, this incorporated a brighter colour palette and heralded more cheerful subjects. Inspired by a local circus, Picasso often depicted harlequin clowns in his paintings. This vivid period lasted until 1907 when Picasso produced his first major work The Young Ladies of Avignon (see above), which sparked the beginning of yet another period: cubism.

Picasso’s cubist paintings are different from the majority of artists involved with the movement. Initially, he was inspired by other artists, but eventually abandoned all traditional rules and focused on painting geometric still lifes, revealing an object from several directions, rather than the way the human eye would usually perceive it from one position.

Not wanting to be constrained to the stipulations of an art faction, Picasso flitted between several. After experimenting with Cubism, he stepped into the Surrealist movement, where he completed paintings and sculptures up until the beginning of the Second World War. Following the bombing of the town, Guernica, Picasso created his famously large painting of the same name. Despite its fame, Guernica has not been included in this colouring book.

Living through two wars, two marriages and many other life altering events, Picasso’s works can be used as a form of a diary. When viewed in chronological order, it is possible to tell what was going on for him personally at specific times. For example, his “blue period” was sparked off by the death of a friend and his work took on a more violent nature during the bleak wartimes. His marriages and divorce can be evidenced by the models used for many of his portraits, for instance, his female companions: Dora Maar and Marie-Thérèse (again, see above).

Despite failing health, Picasso was still painting in his 90s, producing 165 canvases during January 1969 and February 1970 alone. By the time he died on 8th April 1973, Picasso had produced over 50,000 works – an astonishing feat that still evokes veneration.

Naturally, it would be impossible to produce a book of all Picasso’s recorded works, but the editors of this particular colouring book have carefully selected examples that span the majority of his life, thus encompassing the different styles he experimented with.

The author of the text – presumably Frédérique Cassegrain, who also wrote the biography and information for each included artwork – gives helpful advice about how to colour in the outlined versions of Picasso’s paintings. The paper is thick enough to be suitable for paints, particular Gouache, which is water soluble and easily blended. Alternatively, coloured pencils may be used, preferably of artistic quality, which may be more suitable for those less confident in art and design. Another option, although not mentioned by the author, are felt-tip pens. Usually, these should be avoided due to ink bleeding through the page, however, the paper is single sided, so there is no chance of damaging the following colouring page in the book.

Purchasing Pablo Picasso: To Colour In and completing the book, provides not only hours of fun and relaxation, but an opportunity to discover and understand the artist. Unlike at a gallery where the brain may switch off, being able to go away and return to the book gives us time to absorb the information and concentrate more clearly on the details of each painting.

Opposite each colouring page is a copy of the original in full colour, meaning that, if one desired, one could replicate Picasso’s work as closely as possible. By doing, rather than just looking, we begin to understand the colour choices, piece together the geometric shapes to form an image and begin to understand the thought processes of the artist.

Interestingly, there are two paintings that stand out amongst all the others. These were produced during and after the First World War, a time when Picasso returned to a more classical style of artwork. These are The Pipes of Pan (1923) and The Bathers (1918). Both show a completely different side to Picasso and would not immediately be recognised as his own work. Despite not being entirely life-like, there are no elements of Cubism or Surrealism and the colour palette is altogether natural. Picasso has focused on shading and tone to create a realistic appearance, a contrast to the flattened portraits he is known for.

Having seen evidence at the National Portrait Gallery as well as in this colouring book, it is clear that Picasso was able to paint lifelike portraits and scenes, however, he generally chose not to. This may baffle those that wish they could draw accurately; why opt for abstract art when you have a natural flair for realism? Picasso was not concerned about the aesthetic appeal of his artworks but rather used them as a form of expression. He experienced two world wars and personal grievances which greatly impacted on his painting style. Sometimes it is too difficult to put feelings into words, so Picasso represented them visually instead.

Abstract, Cubist and Surrealist art is something that people either love or hate. Many may not appreciate artists such as Picasso, whereas others find them deeply meaningful. Having the opportunity to study the artist through a detailed colouring book creates a more comprehensive understanding of the artwork and ability to acknowledge the intention and story behind it.

Pablo Picasso: To Colour In will appeal to artists, art historians and other creatives with its contrast of light relief and in-depth knowledge. The book is available online at retailers such as Amazon and The Book Depository from approximately £6. If Picasso is not your thing, there are other artists available in the series of colouring books, including Klimt, Hokusai (Japanese Art), Monet, Van Gogh, Caillebotte and Manet (Impressionists), and Paul Klee. Whatever your preference, prepare to learn whilst you are relaxing and having fun.

Thought, Drew, Created!

 

One of my first posts on this blog back in January 2016 was a brief review of Think, Draw, Create!, an art journal-type sketchbook from Parragon Publishing (here). As I demonstrated, I had set myself the challenge to complete a page a week and posted updates of my progress (here and here). Another year has now gone by and I have finally completed every task in the book. Above are some examples that I am particularly pleased with.

As I have said before, Think, Draw, Create! was produced with the intention of helping creatives to nurture their imagination. With over 100 prompts, the book encourages would-be artists to contemplate ideas outside the constraints of linear thinking. The instructions are a mix of literal and figurative tasks that challenge both the brain and artistic skill.

Some pages are fairly straightforward – “Draw something hot.” “Add flames to these candles.” “Design a book cover for a spy novel.” – complete with tailor-made illustrations as starting points. However, some instructions are more obscure, causing thought and careful planning before pen can be put to paper. Examples of these are “Draw this wolf’s howl.” “Draw a joke.” “Draw a wish.” “Draw blue submerged in yellow.” The remaining pages provide the opportunity to illustrate whatever you wish, the only restriction being the colourful or textured background design.

Think, Draw, Create! is not about producing perfect artwork, instead, it is focused on ideas and preparation. Although instructions are given, they are open for interpretation. Many people struggle to think for themselves and need precise direction in order to complete anything. This book is an opportunity to develop a new way of processing instruction and a safe place to increase confidence in your own abilities. Instead of “Draw a bear,” we are asked to “Draw a bear that is late.” The first instruction would have resulted in a range of bears from polar and grizzly to Teddy, however, the latter requires more thought. Not only must we decide what the bear looks like, we need to consider the situation, where he is, why he is late and how is he dealing with this.

The pre-existing illustrations featured in this book have been drawn by Eleanor Carter, an art and design lecturer at Sussex Coast College Hastings. She has used a range of techniques including printmaking and collage as well as drawing to create a fun, light-hearted atmosphere in which to create your own artwork. The imprecise, rough appearance of Eleanor’s illustrations encourages would-be artists not to attempt to be too perfect in their designs and to embrace varied styles and technique.

Since completing the book, I have been able to look back and see the developments I have made in my thinking and drawing ability. I already had a preferred drawing style that had blossomed whilst I was at college, but by taking on these tasks I have been able to expand and evolve my drawing technique.

If someone were to have asked me to draw a picture in 2015, it would almost certainly be a black and white sketch produced with a fine-tipped pen. I never used colour (something that was often mentioned in feedback from tutors) unless I was adding it in digitally – something that was not an option in this book. Initially, I stuck to my monochromic approach, after all the pages already had coloured backgrounds. Eventually, I broke out the coloured pencils and bravely attempted a coloured illustration. I was not disappointed.

Below are a few of my favourite outcomes, all but one coming from pages that gave free rein to do as you pleased. The one directly below was the penultimate task in the book, which instructed me to draw something brave. Admittedly, I did not think about this one for long (to be honest, I struggled with thinking up unique ideas in general) and decided to draw a superhero. For many of my drawings, I researched online for visual references to draw from, so after finding a sketch of Superman, I drew my own version, adding colour to finish. A friend loved this outcome so much, she has a scanned version of it framed on her wall.

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On the first set of pages with the space to do anything, I decided to draw a portrait of a friend. Naturally, I had not altered my illustration style at this point, therefore it looks similar in technique to many other portraits I have produced in the past. However, I am still pleased with the result. I had lost confidence in my drawing ability and seriously doubted I would have been able to create a likeness again, yet I proved myself wrong.

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These final two examples are my favourite outcomes. On a whim, I decided to experiment with pointillism. Whilst searching for inspiration, I had come across an illustration of Matt Smith as the Doctor in Doctor Who, which had been drawn in a similar style to my own. However, I had a vivid image in my mind about how it would look shaded with dots instead of cross-hatching. Since the facial features were cropped out of the image, I was able to draw a brief outline in freehand (I often trace photographs to get proportions correct) then began filling it in with tiny dots. It took many hours to complete, spread over several days, but it was completely worth it.

In keeping with the Doctor Who theme, I decided on a Cyberman for the facing page. Using a vector image I had saved on my phone, I used the same method of pointillism to shade in the robot-like creature. I am still pleased with this particular illustration and often stare at in disbelief. Did I really draw that?

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Think, Draw, Create! has been a lot of fun and has given me the opportunity to draw without the added pressure of deadlines and perfection (okay, that’s a lie. I struggle with perfectionism). I definitely recommend purchasing this book if you are looking to enhance your creativity. It is suitable for all ages and abilities and has certainly helped me develop my own skill.

Sherlock’s Home

221b Baker Street, London NW1 6XE

220px-sherlock_holmes_portrait_pagetIn case of any misunderstanding, let us make one thing clear: Sherlock Holmes is a FICTIONAL character. His house, however, is very real. When Sir Arthur Conan Doyle penned the famous novels, he gave the consulting detective, Mr Holmes, a London address. Baker Street, in the Marylebone district of the City of Westminster, is now famous for this classic character’s apartment.

Back in 1887, when the first Sherlock Holmes book A Study In Scarlet was published, the addresses on Baker Street only went as high as 85, therefore it was a safe, fictional location for Conan Doyle to base his hero. In 1930, the street was expanded, thus the building 221 came into existence.

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London businesses in the Baker Street area have taken advantage of the famous connection by naming their shops, pubs and cafes after the celebrated detective. The site of Sherlock Holmes’ home however, was not brought into connection with the stories until 27th March 1990, when it was opened to the public as the Sherlock Holmes Museum.

Set out in a typical Victorian fashion, visitors can walk around the building imagining what life would have looked like for Holmes and his friend, Dr Watson. With furniture, objets d’art and miscellaneous paraphernalia, the museum curators have sourced objects from the victorian era to create an authentic experience. Sticking closely to the description in the novels and short stories, realistic scenes are displayed in each room.

As indicated by the Blue Plaque on the front of the building, Sherlock Holmes lived at 221b Baker Street between the years 1881-1904. The apartment, which begins on the first floor, was shared between Holmes and Dr John Watson, as well as their landlady, Mrs Hudson. Sherlock’s rooms can be found on the first floor, and Watson and Hudson’s on the second.

Those familiar with the BBC’s contemporary reimagining, Sherlock, may have been misled about the size of the abode. The rooms are surprisingly tiny for an area regarded as a high-class residential district, however readers will know from Dr Watson’s description, that the apartment really was quite small.

Dr John Watson’s bedroom is set out as a doctor’s study, and therefore lacks a bed or anything else to suggest it was used for sleeping. In cabinets and on the cramped desk are books and implements that physicians were likely to have had amongst their possessions during the late 1800s.

Mrs Hudson, presumably as a result of being the landlady, had the biggest room of the house. Due to her being only a minor character in the stories however, nothing is shown of what her quarters may have looked like. Instead, the room has been used as an exhibition area, containing a bronze bust of Sherlock Holmes and various wax models of characters from the more well-known tales.

The museum, unfortunately, lacks written information, therefore visitors need to know a fair bit about Sherlock Holmes to understand the relevance of the various displays and exhibits. The models, for example, come with a brief caption stating who they are, but unless the observer has read the books, they are meaningless. One scene showing a wax-woman firing a pistol at a wax-man does not make clear who is the victim – the man, surely, for he his being murdered? However, knowing the plot of The Adventure of Charles Augustus Milverton, it is actually Lady Eva Blackwell killing her blackmailer, thus avenging her husband.

Being on the small side, the Sherlock Holmes Museum only has room for a handful of visitors at a time. As a result, queues are seen down Baker Street as tourists await their turn to enter the famous building. Despite these restrictions, the house feels very claustrophobic, and guests are constantly bumping into each other. Most people want to take photographs, but how well their shots come out depends on the location of the large party of sightseers that have entered the museum in their dozens.

Sherlock Holmes – no doubt due to the BBC programme – is surprisingly popular amongst European and Asian tourists. Flicking through the guestbook, which everyone is welcome to sign, it is hard to spot another visitor from England amongst all the entries from Japan, China, Sweden and so forth. The museum caters for these foreigners by providing a brief leaflet in their own language explaining the opening of the building to the public, and a concise description of its fictional inhabitants.

The museum is not quite worth its £15 entry fee, but it is impressive to be able to say “I have been to Sherlock Holmes’ house!” The souvenir shop, despite being expensive, makes up for some of the disappointment visitors may have felt with the poky rooms above. Located on the ground floor, the shop is open to everyone regardless of whether they intend to view the museum or not. On sale are a unique selection of mementos, such as t-shirts, novelty playing cards, posters, stationery and other trinkets, as well as special editions of the novels and short stories by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and the many books written on the subject since. Whether you intend to purchase something or not, the souvenir shop is as interesting to look around as the initial attraction.

With the TV series Sherlock still fresh in everyone’s mind, it is unlikely that the popularity or sheer number of visitors to the museum will diminish anytime soon. The Grade 2 listed building has a long future ahead of it, attracting fans from all over the world. From the Blue Plaque outside, to the authenticity of its content, it is easy to forgot that Sherlock Holmes only existed on paper, and not in flesh and blood.

Dahl, the Champion of the World

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2016 marked 100 years since the birth of Roald Dahl – the world’s number one storyteller.

Roald Dahl is one of the most popular children’s authors to have graced the earth in the 20th century. Originally from Norway, Dahl did not start off as an author, enlisting in the Royal Air Force at the beginning of the Second World War, aged only 23. He suffered severe injuries in a crash-landing, ending his fighting career, and beginning a journey as a spy for MI6. Despite these heroic experiences, Dahl’s early years are rarely talked about. A complete career change at the beginning of the 1960s brought Dahl’s name into the limelight.

From 1961 onwards, Roald Dahl produced works of literature virtually nonstop, right up until his death in 1990. His first book James and the Giant Peach, shortly followed by Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, have remained his most popular to date. As well as writing 48 books, Dahl put his talent to use in the film industry, penning the screenplays for You Only Live Twice and Chitty Chitty Bang Bang. Since then, many of his children’s books have also been converted for the big screen, and, more recently, the stage.

But Dahl’s rise to fame was not only beneficial for himself, it resulted in the success of another famous name…

Never do anything by halves if you want to get away with it. Be outrageous. Go the whole hog. – Roald Dahl, Matilda

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Recently exhibited at the British Library in honour of Dahl’s 100th birthday, Quentin Blake has become synonymous with the literary great. With a recognisable style, Blake provided illustrations for all Dahl’s children novels. Of the 300 illustrated books he has worked on, 89 of them belong to the esteemed author. So, it is no surprise that a Quentin Blake’s artwork instantly evokes fond memories of books from our childhoods.

Born in 1932, Quentin Blake cannot remember a time when he was not drawing. His illustration career began at age 16 when his drawings were published in an issue of Punch – a British weekly magazine of humour and satire. From here, Blake began to submit illustrations for many magazines, eventually receiving commissions to provide the imagery for a considerable number of authors.

Roald Dahl, as mentioned, was evidently the most famous of the authors Blake collaborated with, and was probably the highlight of his artistic career. Other well known names Blake has been associated with are: Joan Aiken, Michael Rosen and John Yeoman. However, being an illustrator was not the only career Blake had.

For over twenty years, Blake was a teacher – eight of which were spent as the Head of Illustration at the Royal College of Art. Balancing teaching and illustration must have been a challenge, but Blake undoubtedly rose to it, resulting in his success and fame. Since the death of the beloved Dahl – Blake’s biggest source of work – he changed direction yet again, becoming an exhibition curator for museums such as The National Gallery, Musée du Petit Palais, and, of course, the British Library.

Blake’s current exhibition at the British Library is titled The Roald Dahl Centenary Portraits, comprising ten never-seen-before portraits of famous characters from Dahl’s most famous stories. Each artwork remains true to form, remaining in the distinctive style that is inextricably linked with the all-time favourite author.

The Roald Dahl Centenary Project asks you to imagine that a number of Dahl’s characters have been invited to come and sit for their portrait … I hope you will be happy to see this group of well-known characters treated as though they are real people – which, of course, to many of us they are. – Quentin Blake

Quentin Blake has won numerous awards throughout his lifetime, including the Whitbread Award and the Kate Greenaway Medal. However Blake’s most prestigious award is his knighthood for ‘services to illustration’ in the New Year’s Honours for 2013 – so, that is SIR Blake to you!

Although we hope he will be around for many more years to come, Quentin Blake has definitely left us a legacy, not just with his illustrations, but his compassionate personality, which has lead to the development and support of many charities. Information about the charities he supports can be found in the following links: House of Illustration, The Campaign for Drawing, The Prince’s Foundation for Children and the Arts, The Nightingale Project, Roald Dahl’s Marvellous Children’s Charity, The Book Bus, Farms for City Children and Survival International.

Those who don’t believe in magic will never find it. – Roald Dahl, The Minpins

Ardizzone: A Retrospective

‘The supreme contemporary example of the genuine illustrator’
Maurice Sendak on Edward Ardizzone, 1967

At present, the House of Illustration, in London, is holding the first major exhibition in decades of the 20th century illustrator Edward Ardizzone (1900-79). From my own research, conducted when writing my dissertation in 2012, I was already aware of Ardizzone’s influence within children’s literature, however from attending the gallery, I soon learnt this was not his only area of authority.

Edward Ardizzone is known amongst children’s book illustrators as the creator of the Little Tim stories. These first appeared at the very end of the 1930s, however Ardizzone had already found success as an illustrator. Before turning to literature, Ardizzone’s art work featured in magazines such as Radio Times as well as a number of other publishers. Later in his career, Ardizzone was commissioned to produce cover art for a number of books published by Puffin. Books in this series included Stig of the Dump (1963) and The Otterbury Incident (1961).

Between 1940 and 1945, Ardizzone used the Second World War as a means of creating art. Using the same method as his book illustrations – pen and wash – Ardizzone continued to produce atmospheric illustrations, however with a more adult nature. Despite the subject matter, Ardizzone’s drawings look similar regardless of target audience. He got his inspiration from observing the world around him, closely looking at individuals and taking into account the changes current events inflicted on scenery (e.g. war).

What is perhaps most interesting about the exhibition, Ardizzone: A Retrospective, is perceiving the development of Ardizzone’s artistic skill and career path throughout his lifetime. The House of Illustration displays previously unseen original illustrations that Ardizzone composed toward the beginning of his art journey, as well as hundreds of other examples that reflect the diversity of his work. Amongst copies of well known posters and book covers, arranged around the gallery are initial sketches, caricatures and, rather surprisingly, the odd ceramic.

Edward Ardizzone appealed to me as an artist due to my love of 20th century picture books. After viewing the exhibition, I am even more impressed with his artwork as he proves that illustrations are not only for children. A clever drawing evokes more emotion than any photograph could.

Ardizzone: A Retrospective will be held at the House of Illustration until 22nd January 2017.

The Life of a Sketchbook

Sketchbook ˈskɛtʃbʊk/ noun a pad of drawing paper for sketching on.
I lost count the amount of times throughout school and college people asked if they could look through my sketchbook. I felt uncomfortable letting people flick through the pages for two reasons. 1. I did not believe I was any good at drawing. 2. I knew the contents of my sketchbooks were not what they were expecting to see. There seems to be a misunderstanding among non-artists that sketchbooks are full of perfect works of art, but this is not the case at all.
The purpose of a sketchbook, particularly when studying, is to document creative ideas. It is a private place for artists to record their thoughts and experiments before developing various versions of a particular concept. It is only after these stages have been completed that the final artwork is put together.
There is no right or wrong way to keep a sketchbook. Everyone works differently and find some methods more helpful than others. Some books may not contain any drawings at all but be filled with collage and inspiration from a number of resources, whereas others may be packed with rough illustrations and scribbled notes.
Steven Heller, an author of art and design books, has compiled together snapshots from professional artists’ and designers’ sketchbooks. It is interesting to see the methods they have taken to move their thoughts from brain to paper. Two books I particularly enjoyed looking through are Graphic and Typography Sketchbooks.
Inspired by these books I have taken photographs of a few of my own sketchbooks that I kept whilst studying for a degree in Graphic Design. As you can see below I did not stick to one method, instead I experimented with drawings, collage, paint, colour, rough thumbnail sketches etc.

Next time you ask to look at someone’s sketchbook remember you are not going to see perfect artwork. What you are really requesting is to take a peak into someone’s brain. So don’t be surprised if they hesitate to show you!