Beside the Sea

In recent years, scientific studies have proven the human brain is hardwired to react positively to water. Being near the sea, for example, has helped many people feel calmer, happier and healthier. Since ancient times, humans have associated water with healing. In Roman times, public baths were an important part of the culture. In India and China, water properties were vital for medicine and in many cultures and religions rivers have been assigned sacred properties.

Today, many of us are drawn to the sea or lakes, particularly for holidays. Some people benefit from water sports and others from a long shower or bath. Swimming is an activity that both relaxes the brain and exercises the body.

The colour blue, which is usually associated with water, has been listed as the favourite colour of the majority of the world’s population. Blue is also associated with calmness, openness and wisdom. Marine biologist Wallace J. Nichols writes, “We have a ‘blue mind’ — and it’s perfectly tailored to make us happy in all sorts of ways that go way beyond relaxing in the surf, listening to the murmur of a stream, or floating quietly in a pool.” He claims being around water relaxes the mind, inducing a mildly meditative state. Water helps us become more aware of the life around us, helping us connect with other people’s emotions. Spending time near water can also help the brain to become more creative. Many great ideas, for instance, have been formed in the shower. The brain switches into a more restful state, allowing thoughts to flow freely.

In the past couple of weeks, Britain has experienced the draw of the sea with hundreds flocking to beaches to make the most of the heatwave and the lessening of lockdown restrictions. Unfortunately, most people have been forced to cancel their holidays due to COVID-19, meaning many will miss out on the opportunity to relax and unwind by the sea, ocean or lake.

Although it is by no means the same, Google Arts & Culture have compiled a dozen artworks of calming seascapes that can be viewed online. The sea has been a popular subject for artists, no doubt for the above reasons, but also because it allows artists to experiment with technique and colour. Seascapes are also nice to look at, and therefore more likely to sell.

La maison du pêcheur, Varengeville – Claude Monet (1840-1926)

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La maison du pêcheur, Varengeville – Monet

Many of Claude Monet’s paintings involve a body of water, be it sea, river or pond. Several of his seascapes are of the Normandy coastline, where he took solace after the death of his first wife Camille (1847-79).

La maison du pêcheur, Varengeville was one of several paintings produced by Monet at the end of the 1880s. Situated on the coast of the English Channel, Varengeville-sur-Mer is a commune in Normandy known for its huge chalk cliffs and pebble beach. It was from the tops of these cliffs that Monet sat to paint the stunning views across an expanse of blue-green sea. This particular painting includes a fisherman’s hut (maison du pêcheur), which hints at the type of manual lifestyle of the local people. The hut may also have been used as a customs officer’s house, from which he could keep an eye out for smugglers.

Varengeville-sur-Mer, situated five miles west of Dieppe, was once a favourite hunting place of King Francis I of France (1494-1547). Visitors today can still see his hunting lodge as well as two chateaus. From the same century is the Manoir d’Ango, a manor house built between 1530 and 1545 by Jean Ango (1480-1551). Ango was a Norman ship owner who provided ships for Francis I. A cemetery by the sea also dates to the 16th century.

At the turn of the 20th century, Guillaume Mallet became the owner of one of the large valleys overlooking the sea: Bois des Moutiers. Within the 30-acres of land, he commissioned the British architect Edward Lutyens (1869-1944) to renovate the manor house. Gertrude Jekyll (1843-1932) was asked to design the garden, which is known for its rhododendrons, azaleas and magnolias. The interior of the house was furnished by Morris & Co, including a tapestry of The Adoration of the Magi, designed by Edward Burne-Jones (1833-98).

Monet is not the only artist associated with Varengeville-sur-Mer. Buried in the cemetery is Georges Braque (1883-1963), a Cubist artist who designed the stained glass window for the local church. The window depicts a Jesse Tree, which is a representation of the genealogy of Jesus. The church, St. Valery, which dates from the 13th century, sits on the top of the cliffs and is at risk of falling into the sea.

Fishing on Haengho Lake – Jeong Seon (1676-1759)

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Fishing on Haengho Lake – Jeong Seon

Jeong Seon, also known by the pseudonym Kyomjae (“humble study”) was a landscape painter who focused on the geographical features of Korea. Jeong was born into a poor yangban family – civil servants and military officers – in the Jongo District of Hanyang (Seoul). He decided to become a landscape painter at a young age and began working at the Bureau of Painting. At the age of 41, Jeong moved to the Office for Observance of Natural Phenomena but an aristocratic neighbour spotted his talent and introduced him to the court where he gained an official position.

As one of the most famous Korean painters, Jeong had a significant impact on the Korean art of the Joseon era (1700-1850). Using inks and oriental water on either paper or silk, Jeong was the first painter of true-view Korean landscapes, particularly focusing on the capital city of Hanyang (Seoul), the Han River, the Sea of Japan and the Kumgang Mountains (Diamond Mountain).

Fishing on Haengho Lake is a typical example of Jeong’s style of work. He attempted to paint the world as he saw it, using bold strokes for mountains and streams. The background is created from layers of ink wash upon which the features are drawn with a thick brush. Vegetation is depicted as a series of dots, which was inspired by Chinese art from the 11th century.

Unfortunately, it is not certain where Haengho Lake is today since many places have been renamed. One possibility is the Han River, which flows through the capital city, or Seokchon Lake, which was originally part of the river. Seokchon Lake was formed when an island in the Han River was artificially “reclaimed” by the mainland in the 1970s. Initially, the lake suffered from water pollution due to the construction work, however, after careful maintenance, the water has remained clear since 2011.

The landscape has altered significantly since Jeong painted the area. Whereas Jeong had a clear view of the mountains, today they are obscured by tall buildings, such as the Lotte World Tower, which reaches a height of 1,823 ft, making it the fifth-highest building in the world. Nonetheless, areas such as Seokchon lake provide visitors with a taste of Korean life. In the spring, the Seokchon Lake Cherry Blossom Festival is held to celebrate the beautiful landscape. In the Autumn, the Seokchon Lake Deciduous Street Festival begins, celebrating the natural flora of South Korea. Participants fill the lake with thousands of deciduous leaves from native trees, such as maple and ginkgo.

The east side of the river is named café street due to the number of food establishments. There is at least one café every 100-metres, which provide many varieties of food and drink as well as a view over the lake.

Sea and Sky – Rafael Martínez Padilla (1878-1958)

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Sea and Sky – Rafael Martínez Padilla

Very little is known about Rafael Padilla other than he lived in Barcelona and was a friend of Picasso (1881-1973). His paintings were exhibited in Barcelona and Paris, where he lived for some time after 1937.

Padilla produced a range of portraits, still-life and landscapes including Sea and Sky, which shows a solitary sea view with a broad horizon and dramatic sky. It is most likely a view from El Port de la Selva on the Costa Brava, which Padilla returned to many times in his paintings.

El Port de la Selva is a traditional fishing village and harbour situated 20 kilometres away from the French border. Today, it is a seaside resort sheltered by mountains with a natural bay that is popular with windsurfers. The relatively small town dates back to the 17th century and still contains some of the cobbled streets and original houses.

Whereas it was once a peaceful village, El Port de la Selva attracts the more adventurous tourists who wish to partake in sailing, kayaking, diving, water skiing and so on. There are more peaceful pastimes, such as fishing, the opportunity to relax on a clean beach, and the chance to taste the local cuisine.

The area enjoys hot summers and mild winters, making it a place that can be visited throughout the year. There are stunning views from the mountains and hills across a turquoise sea, as seen in Padilla’s painting.

Not far from the town is the Sant Pere de Rodes, a former Benedictine monastery, which was founded in the 10th century. Allegedly monks travelled to the area by sea with the remains of Saint Peter and other saints to save the relics from the Barbarians that were invading the Roman Empire.

The Sea from Capri – William Stanley Haseltine (1835-1900)

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The Sea from Capri – William Stanley Haseltine

William Stanley Haseltine was an American painter and draughtsman from Philadelphia who, after graduating from Harvard University in 1854, travelled around Europe with a colony of American painters. Initially, they studied in Düsseldorf, then travelled up the Rhine to places in Switzerland and Italy. Eventually, they settled in Rome where they spent the year painting landscapes around the city and on the island of Capri before returning home in 1858.

Whilst in Italy, Haseltine stayed in the Certosa of San Giacomo (Carthusian Monastery of St. John), which sits atop a limestone cliff overlooking the town of Capri. It is from there that he produced the oil painting The Sea from Capri, which shows the ruins of the Villa Jovis, erected by Emperor Tiberius (42 BC-AD 37) in the 1st century, in the foreground.

Capri is located in the Tyrrhenian Sea on the south side of the Gulf of Naples. Its name traces back to the Ancient Greeks and means either “wild boar” or “goat island”, which suggests the island was once inhabited by animals. Before the First World War, the island was popular with wealthy gay men, for example, the poet Somerset Maugham (1874-1965) who shared a villa with the pianist John Ellingham Brooks (1863-1929). Since then, it has been a popular place for celebrities to own villas including, Soviet author Maxim Gorky (1868-1936), Queen Victoria of Sweden (1862-1930), Dame Gracie Fields (1898-1979) and Mariah Carey (b.1969).

During the late 19th century, Capri was a popular destination for artists, such as Haseltine and his friends. John Singer Sargent (1856-1925) is among the prominent artists who stayed on the island, and French composer Claude Debussy (1862-1918) was inspired by the hills and refers to a town on the island in one of his piano composition: Les collines d’Anacapri (The Hills of Anacapri).

Capri, which is twinned with Crosby in Merseyside, is believed to be the spot where Odysseus heard the Siren’s song on his epic journey home from the battle of Troy. It was the home of Emperor Tiberius, hence the villa in Haseltine’s painting, which can be visited by tourists today. Described as a dream honeymoon destination, it is very popular with holidaymakers during the summer months. Some choose to stay on the island, however, as it is not ideal for beaches, many holiday on the mainland and take a day trip to Capri.

Haseltine was attracted to the island’s scenic charm, as are the majority of visitors today. Coastlines can be admired from tall cliffs, which contain several hidden grottos and there are plenty of walking opportunities. Haseltine’s painting was likely produced at sunset, demonstrating the way the light plays on the expanse of turquoise sea, which contrasts with the glowing colours of the sky.

Seascape. View of the Bay of Palma de Mallorca – Antonio Muñoz Degrainca (1840-1924)

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Seascape. View of the Bay of Palma de Mallorca – Antonio Muñoz Degrainca

Antonio Muñoz Degrain, born in Valencia in 1840, was an eclectic Impressionist artist who is best known for his landscapes and scenes inspired by works of literature. He lived a rather Bohemian lifestyle, although was later commissioned to paint the ceiling of the Teatro Cervantes in Málaga and was awarded the Grand Cross of the Order of Charles III for his historical painting of Queen Isabella I of Castille (1451-1504), the mother of Catherine of Aragon (1485-1536).

Seascape. View of the Bay of Palma de Mallorca is Muñoz Degrain’s only painting of Mallorca, which may have been produced on a “working cruise” on the Mediterranean, which inspired many of his artworks. In 1922, Muñoz Degrain was considered for the position of chair at the Palma de Mallorca Academy but lost out to someone else.

This painting is made up of the colours purple, orange, yellow and blue, which were typical of his later works. His brushstrokes are broad and uneven, which accentuates the visual qualities of sky, sea and land. The rocks, seen at a distance, appear to be lit up by a low lying sun, although the colours are not quite realistic. On the other hand, the ripples of waves on the sea are convincing, as are the sparkles of light caused by the setting sun.

Since all the vessels on the sea are fairly modern, it is likely Muñoz Degrain painted the scene as he saw it from a boat. In other landscape paintings, he often added fanciful elements, suggesting an earlier period, for example, an ancient Phoenician boat. In this painting, a steamer is heading towards the island and pleasure yachts are sailing along the coast. A small rowing boat, the nearest vessel to the artist, is being controlled by an elegantly dressed woman, while her companion lies slumped over the stern, potentially seasick.

Palma de Mallorca is the capital of Mallorca and the largest city in the Balearic Islands. Today it is a popular tourist destination with over 29 million people using Palma Airport each year. Originally a Roman camp, the city and island have passed through many hands, eventually settling as a territorial division of Spain in 1833. It was not until 1950 that the island was suitable for holidaymakers, however, since the turn of the 21st century, more than half of the population works in tourism.

La Seu, or the Cathedral of Santa Maria of Palma, is one of the popular attractions of the city. It was built on top of a previous mosque, which was, in turn, built upon the original church. Catalan architect Antoni Gaudí (1852-1926) was invited to restore the building in 1901, which adds to its public appeal. Mallorca has experienced a mix of religions over the centuries. Although it was originally a Christian area, it was taken over by Muslims in 902 AD. James I of Aragon reconquered the land for Christianity in 1229 but, soon after, many Jews made their way to the island. As a result, there is a mix of architecture in the city; the maze of streets indicate an Arab history, however, the architecture has been likened to Italian cities, such as Florence.

Another highlight of Palma de Mallorca is the beaches and marinas. Tourists can relax on Palma City Beach and enjoy a panoramic view of the ocean. Yachts frequently set sail from the beaches, as can be seen in Muñoz Degrain’s painting. Looking back at the island, sailors have a good view of the Serra de Tramuntana mountains and a line of palm trees that lead to the next beach.

Marine – Osvaldo Licini (1894-1958)

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Marine – Osvaldo Licini

Osvaldo Licini’s Marine (or Marina) may seem an odd choice for Google Arts & Culture’s list of calming seascapes, however, it demonstrates an alternative way of depicting the sea. Licini was an Italian abstract painter from the Marche region of Italy. Very little is known about him, however, his paintings have been topics of discussion for many art critics.

One critic stated Licini achieved the “metaphysical depiction of silence” in his seascapes. He wanted to show that geometric shapes can demonstrate feelings, “strength, will and ideas; colours convey magic.” Another critic, Flaminio Gualdoni, the author of several art books, describes Marine as “full and vibrant, composed of temperatures, and of sonorous and ambiguous tones, both tense and dense, and capable of vibrating even when the layer is full and uniform.”

Marine, painted around 1957 and, therefore, one of Licini’s final paintings, is divided into blocks of bright, intense colours. The blue represents the sea and the yellow the sky, possibly at sunset. Triangular shapes suggest landforms, however, one diagonal line rising from the land vanishes into the sky. One interpretation is of a mountain whose peak fades into a hazy sky.

1024px-monte_conero_visto_dalla_spiaggia_urbaniIt is not certain where Licini painted Marine or whether it was an imaginary seascape. He was born in Ascoli Piceno, which is not on the seafront and died in Monte Vidon Corrado, which is also inland. Both these towns, however, are in the Marche region, which is bordered on the east by the Adriatic Sea. Monte Conero, situated on the sea near the port of Ancona, is a contender for the land seen in Licini’s painting. Ancona is a city worth visiting for history lovers as well as beach lovers. The city was originally founded by the Greeks but was later taken by the Romans. It then became a Byzantine city followed by a Maritime republic and a Papal State. As a result, there are sights from all periods: the Arch of Trajan, an 11th-century cathedral and an Episcopal Palace to name a few.

Approach to Venice – J. M. W. Turner (1775-1851)

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Approach to Venice – J. M. W. Turner

“The moon is up, and yet it is not night / The sun as yet disputes the day with her.” – Lord Byron

This painting by Turner shows a view of Venice at sunset. The yellow clouds evidence the direction of the setting sun, however, on the left, the glowing moon can already be seen. A flotilla of barges and gondolas are making their way back to shore at the end of a long day on the water. Approach to Venice is one of several oil paintings Turner produced in Venice in which he explored the effect of light on the cities waterways.

Turner made his first journey abroad in 1802, however, did not visit Venice until 1820, although, he returned two or three times before his death in 1851. He was attracted by the Venetian Lagoon, which lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave rivers. Known as “La Dominante”, “La Serenissima”, “Queen of the Adriatic”, “City of Water”, “City of Masks”, “City of Bridges”, “The Floating City”, and “City of Canals”, Venice is made up of 118 small islands that are linked together by over 400 bridges. It has been ranked many times as the world’s most beautiful city and cultural centre.

For those wishing to spend time on the water, then Venice is the place to be. Unfortunately, its popularity as a tourist destination has caused the city some problems, namely pollution and flooding. The latter is a constant threat, particularly in the autumn and spring when the tide is typically higher. Despite being a car-free city, the lagoons and canals are often polluted by the motorised water buses and cruise ships, which bring over 1.5 million people to the city per year. The ships are also another cause of flooding.

Nonetheless, Venice has been an inspiration for many people, including Turner. Shakespeare’s (1564-1616) The Merchant of Venice and Othello were set in the city and Venice also features prominently in books by Henry James (1843-1916), Evelyn Waugh (1903-66) and Marcel Proust (1871-1922). Many artists have been drawn to the city, the most famous being Canaletto (1697-1768) who is largely remembered for his landscapes of Venice. Other artists include Monet, Titian (1488-1576) and Tintoretto (1518-94).

Sea in the Morning – Kei Murayama

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Sea in the morning – Kei Murayama

Kei Murayama is a contemporary Japanese artist who has painted several seascapes and landscapes that demonstrate the magnificent natural scenery in Japan. Painted in ink and watercolour, the artist captures the colours of the sunrise, both in the sky and on the water, and expertly portrays the gentle waves produced on a calm day.

Japan is not usually thought of as a beach destination since most people imagine the bustling city of Tokyo, however, being a long, thin country surrounded by the Pacific Ocean and the Japan and the East China Sea, there are plenty of beaches to visit. Okinawa Prefecture, consisting of a dozen small islands, is famous for its white sandy beaches and turquoise waters. Not far from Tokyo are several beaches from which the cities skyscrapers can be seen as well as a great view of Mount Fiji. For swimming and snorkelling, the best beaches are in the south, however, there are plenty of places to relax all around the country

On Lake Attersee – Gustav Klimt (1862-1918)

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On Lake Attersee – Gustav Klimt

Austrian artist Gustav Klimt was a symbolist painter and member of the Vienna Secession movement, which was closely related to Art Nouveau. He had a particularly distinct style, which, for those who know his painting of The Kiss, is instantly recognisable. Klimt’s landscape paintings, however, were produced in a different style with colours not too dissimilar from paintings by Monet. The turquoise water in On Lake Attersee also reflects the colours of his favourite lake on a summer morning.

Attersee is the largest lake in the Salzkammergut region of Austria, east of the city of Salzburg. With a length of 12 miles and a width of 2.5 miles, the clean quality of the water attracts many sailors and swimmers. The water, however, is often cold but it rarely freezes. Settlements around the lake rely on tourism, which is at its peak in the summer months.

In the top righthand corner of Klimt’s painting is a small island called Litzlberg. The name derives from Lützelburg, which means “small castle”. This is in reference to a monastery, which was also used as a place of refuge. Since it was only accessible by water, it was impossible to sneak up on, making it a safe place for those in danger to stay. Today, it is a private island and joined to the island by a bridge that was built in 1917, seventeen years after Klimt painted the lake. The rest of the lake and surrounding areas are open to the public and offer a range of activities including diving, water sports, cycling, swimming and hiking.

Slumbering Sea, Mentone – Tom Roberts (1856-1931)

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Slumbering sea, Mentone – Tom Roberts

Although born in Dorset, England, Thomas William Roberts was a key member of the Heidelberg School art movement, better known as Australian Impressionism. His family emigrated to Australia when he was 13 years old, although returned briefly to the UK to study at the Royal Academy Schools.

Mentone, a suburb in Melbourne, is associated with the Heidelberg School of Australian artists and is the location of Roberts’ painting Slumbering Sea. Painted en plein air, Roberts shows a woman, boy and dog meeting a boat as it sails onto Mentone Beach from Beaumaris Bay. Roberts was a renowned colourist and used rich earthy colours for the sand and chalky whites for the cliffs in the distance. These are offset by the gentle blues of the sea and sky and the vivid whites of the boat and clothing. The way Roberts painted the figures suggests he had developed his technique by studying Old Masters.

The resort town was named after the formerly-Italian French town Menton, which is why many of the streets also have Italian names. The beach is the town’s biggest attraction, however, the area is generally residential rather than tourist-focused.

View of Shima Slope – Utagawa Hiroshige (1797-1858)

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View of Shima Slope – Utagawa Hiroshige

Utagawa Hiroshige was the last great master of ukiyo-e, a style of Japanese art that produced woodblock prints and paintings. He is best known for his many landscape series, including One Hundred Famous Views of Edo, which went on to inspire many artists including Vincent van Gogh (1853-90).

View of Shima Slope is a colour woodblock print that shows a view of Tokyo Bay from Shima Slope, also known as Shiomizaka. Today, this view has disappeared due to the growing city, however, it was very popular with ukiyo-e artists during Hiroshige’s lifetime. Shiomizaka has two meanings, the most common of which is “watch the tide”. The other is “see death”.

Tokyo Bay, which Hiroshige knew as Edo Bay, is connected to the Pacific Ocean and is the most populous and largest industrialized area in Japan. Within the bay is an artificial island called Odaiba, which can be reached by crossing Rainbow Bridge from central Tokyo. Initially, it was built for defensive purposes but today it is a major commercial, residential and leisure area. The island was due to be one of the venues for the 2020 Summer Olympic Games, which has now been postponed.

There are many attractions on Odaiba including an artificial beach, Venice-themed shopping centre, 377ft Ferris wheel (Daikanransha), Sea Forest Waterway, museums, swimming pools and a replica of the Statue of Liberty. The island is essentially an entertainment district, therefore, Tokyo Bay is no longer the calming seascape depicted by Hiroshige.

Port of Saint-Cast – Paul Signac (1863-1935)

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Port of Saint-Cast – Paul Signac

Paul Signac was a Neo-Impressionist painter who developed the Pointillist style with Georges Seurat (1859-91). Signac had originally been influenced by Monet, however, with Seurat, he abandoned the free brushwork of the Impressionist style for a systematic application of tiny dots of colour, as seen in Port of Saint-Cast. This painting is one of four Signac produced along the coast of Brittany on the English Channel. Despite the vibrant colours, the painting is rather sparse, suggesting it was a clear, still day with nothing significant happening on the water.

Saint-Cast-le-Guildo, known as Saint-Cast for short, used to be a fishing community but now boasts of splendid beaches to attract tourists. The commune was named after a Welsh monk and is a favourite spot for gathering seashells on the many sandy beaches. Since the mid-19th century, Saint-Cast has been a chic resort with many posh villas. The area is popular with walkers and cyclists.

These twelve paintings are only a small sample of seascapes but they go to show that artists from all periods and painting styles have been drawn to the water. Their views of seas, oceans and lakes not only demonstrate the beauty of water but also preserve the shorelines that have now changed beyond recognition.

When these artists painted these seascapes, it is doubtful they imagined people in quarantine looking at them wistfully from their computer screens, and yet, here we are. There are plenty more paintings to look at on the internet and, whilst virtual tours, photographs and videos can show you these destinations in the 21st century, it is nice to imagine yourself in the quieter settings of these paintings.

To see the paintings in more detail, visit 12 Calming Seascapes on Google Arts & Culture.

Dora Maar

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The Weeping Woman – Picasso

Dora Maar, also known as Picasso’s “Weeping Woman”, is mostly remembered for being the surrealist artist’s muse and lover. This year, Tate Modern has put together the most comprehensive retrospective of Dora Maar ever held, allowing her to be seen as a photographer and artist in her own right. The exhibition explores the breadth of Maar’s career, encompassing commercial photography, documentary projects and painting.

Dora Maar was born Henriette Theodora Markovitch in Paris on 22nd November 1907, although she was mostly known as Dora. Her father Joseph Markovitch (1874–1969) was an architect from Croatia but settled in Paris with his French wife Louise-Julie Voisin (1877–1942) in 1896. From 1910, Maar’s early life was mostly spent in Buenos Aires, Argentina where her father had obtained a commission from the Austria-Hungary Embassy. Although his work did not make him particularly wealthy, his achievements were recognised by Emperor Francis Joseph I (1830-1916).

The Markovitch family returned to Paris in 1926 where Dora enrolled at the Central Union of Decorative Arts. She also attended the newly opened l’Ecole Nationale de la Cinématographie et la Photographie (School of Photography). Following this, she enrolled at the École des Beaux-Artes and the Académie Julian. Whilst she trained in both fine art and photography, she decided photography was the way forward because it provided greater stability than painting in the commercial world.

In 1930, Dora met the Hungarian-French photographer Brassaï (1899-1984) with whom she began sharing a darkroom. Gyula Halász, who went by the pseudonym Brassaï, was an internationally known photographer between the two world wars who also worked as a sculptor, medalist, writer and filmmaker. He photographed many of his friends, who included the artists Salvador Dalí, Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse and Alberto Giacometti.

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Untitled (Fashion Photograph, Evening Gown by Jacques Heim for Madame Jacques Heim)

Dora also worked with Harry Osip Meerson (1911-91), a Polish-born French fashion photographer and, during 1930, she set up a photography studio with Pierre Kéfer on the Rue Campagne-Première on the outskirts of Paris. Kéfer had been a decorator and set designer for Jean Epstein’s (1897-1953) film The Fall of the House of Usher (1928), however, the studio mainly focused on photography for advertisements and fashion magazines. Dora called working with Kéfer her “worldly period” because it introduced her to many glamorous clientele.

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Mont Saint Michel, Cloister, Southern Gallery

Dora’s first significant commission was for Germain Bazin (1901-90), an art historian, who wanted photographs to illustrate his manuscript about a monastery on Mont Saint Michel island in Normandy. Seventy-two photos were needed in total, of which Dora supplied thirty-seven. Unfortunately, she was only credited for six.

It was around this time that Dora decided to officially change her public name, declaring in a 1932 bulletin that Henriette Markovitch, “artist-painter”, had transformed into Dora Maar, photographer. Many of the studio’s photographs were signed “Kéfer-Dora-Maar”, however, Dora was usually the sole author.

Kéfer-Dora-Maar’s first fashion photography commission was for Jacques Heim (1899-1967) who ran a maison de couture. Maar’s job was to photograph Heim’s latest clothing designs for the fashion house’s magazine. This was Maar’s first taste of haute couture, which led to commissions from other fashion designers, such as Coco Chanel (1883-1971), Jeanne Lanvin (1867-1946) and Elsa Schiaparelli (1890-1973). Maar continued to work with Heim during the 1950s, producing textile designs and logos rather than photographs.

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The Years Lie in Wait for You

Kéfer-Dora-Maar dissolved in 1935 and Maar established her own studio in central Paris where she took on independent commissions. It was around this time that her style of work also began to change, becoming more experimental, for instance, using scissors and glue to turn her photographs into collages. Maar also produced photomontages, which involved sandwiching two negatives together and printing them as one image. An example of this is The Years Lie in Wait for You, published in 1935 as an advertisement for an anti-ageing cream. The image is made up of a photograph of a spider’s web and a close-up of Maar’s friend Nusch Éluard (1906-45). Eluard, who was born Maria Benz, was a stage performer who regularly modelled for surrealist artists.

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Assia

Another model both Maar and other artists used was Assia Granatouroff (1911-82). Born in Ukraine, Granatouroff moved to France at a young age and trained to be a textile designer. In her early twenties, she decided to become a film actress but needed money to pay for acting classes. By modelling, often for nudes, Granatouroff managed to scrape together the necessary funds. Maar’s photographs of Grantouroff experimented with lighting and angles and re-imagined the classical depiction of the nude. Many of the photographs were circulated in art publications and erotic magazines.

Maar did not spend all her time working in a studio. Following the Wall Street Crash of 1929 in the United States, Europe was subjected to the worst economic depression of modern times. Maar and her peers wished to document the devastating effects of the crisis throughout Europe and, without being commissioned, she travelled to the Costa Brava in Catalonia, followed by Barcelona.

Maar explored the city, documenting both the landscape and the people she saw. None of her photographs were staged, instead, they were captured quickly on her Rolleiflex camera. This camera was portable and could be held at waist height, allowing the photographer to take rapid, spur-of-the-moment photographs.

In Barcelona, Maar saw a mix of scenes that revealed some of the worst-off areas. Photographs include a beggar woman, a blind street pedlar and a group of blind musicians, all of whom were trying to earn money in order to survive. On the other hand, Maar captured shots of children playing and someone doing a handstand on the beach, which suggests that not everything was doom and gloom.

Back in Paris, Maar continued to document the effects of the economic depression, particularly in the area known as “La Zone”. In 1844, a 3-4 kilometre strip of land in the 13th arrondissement of Paris was transformed into a military defence zone. By the 1930s, it was no longer needed and poor communities began to move into the disused buildings. Eventually, around 40,000 people were living there, although they were forcibly moved before the beginning of the Second World War.

Maar captured the life in “La Zone”, showing dilapidated buildings, working men and women, and children. These photographs contrasted with others she took in the city, which revealed well-dressed people going about their everyday lives.

In February 1934, Maar visited London where she documented various locations in the City of London and the East End. The photographs were included in an exhibition at Galeries Van den Berghe in Paris under the name of Kéfer-Dora-Maar, however, Maar was the sole photographer.

The photographs taken in London continued to reveal the state of lives during the economic depression. War veterans begging on the street, Lottery Ticket dealers and ragpickers were competing for customers to earn a wage. A man with a placard stating, “Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand” (Matthew 3:2) suggests that some people believed the social and economic situation in Europe was God-driven.

To try to assist traders who had fallen on hard times, “Coster Kings and Queens” were elected to collect money on the streets. This evolved into the tradition of Pearly Kings and Queens, which continues today. Maar photographed one Pearly King collecting money for Empire Air Day, an annual air show held at Royal Air Force stations across Britain. “The idea of Empire Air Day is that the public should be enabled to see the Royal Air Force at its everyday work.” (Anthony Muirhead MP) Maar’s photograph shows the Pearly King dressed in imitation 20th-century high society fashion, decorated with pearly beads.

Affected by what she had seen in Barcelona, London and Paris, Maar signed her name on the Appel à la lutte (Call to the Struggle) manifesto by the surrealist poet André Breton (1896-1966) and screenwriter Louis Chavance (1907-79). The manifesto had been written as a response to political riots by the extreme far-right and, at the time, Maar considered herself to be on the far-left. Maar was also inspired to join Breton’s anti-fascist movement Contre-Attaque, which he led with the philosopher Georges Bataille (1897-1962). Alongside this, she attended and documented the rehearsals and performances of the leftist theatre troupe Groupe Octobre.

By associating herself with the political side of surrealism, Maar began to adopt the movement in her photography. The Surrealist Movement, which was predominantly led by Breton and Paul Éluard aimed to transform the art world, refusing to conform to constrictions put in place by modern society. Surrealism embraced the power of the unconscious mind, creating impossible, dreamlike imagery that were far from reality.

At first, it was not certain how photography could benefit the Surrealist Movement, therefore, Maar continued to photograph scenes around the city. Her way of thinking, however, had been changed and she began to seek out the stranger areas of historic cities. Whilst in London, Maar photographed a man looking inside a pavement inspection door, which was not a usual sight to see. She also came across a wire sculpture of a kangaroo on the pavement.

During this period, Maar became more experimental with the way she took photographs. Her documentary photography produced quick snapshots of city life, however, by focusing on dramatic angles and cropping the image, Maar was able to construct a more disorienting perspective. Gradually, Maar’s photographs leant more and more towards surrealism.

Alongside Man Ray (1890-1976), Raoul Ubac (1910-85) and Hans Bellmer (1902-75), Maar became one of the few photographers to be included in surrealist exhibitions. She continued to photograph objects from interesting angles, which distorted their appearance. This method resulted in Portrait of Ubu, which was named after Alfred Jarry’s (1873-1907) absurdist play Ubu Roi (King Ubu, 1895). The subject matter has yet to be identified, although the most popular suggestion is an armadillo foetus. Talking about the photo in 1994, Maar said, “It’s a real animal, but I don’t want to say which one, because it would strip it of its mystery.”

To add to the surrealist effects of her photography, Maar returned to the method of photomontage, cutting and pasting together two or more photographs to make a new image. Maar took elements from her own photographs and those of other photographers, as well as images from 20th-century publications. Rather than leaving the result in a collage format, Maar photographed the cutouts to create a seamless image. Hand-shell, for example, was produced by combining a couple of photographs to make it appear as though a hand was protruding from a shell.

Dora Maar reached the height of her career in the winter of 1935-6 when she met Pablo Picasso (1881-1973). Picasso, on the other hand, was at the worst time of his life, having not produced any artwork for several months. Their first meeting took place on the set of Jean Renoir’s film The Crime of Monsieur Lange where Maar was taking promotional photographs. On this occasion, Maar and Picasso may not have spoken, however, they were formally introduced a few days later by their mutual friend Paul Éluard.

Between 1936 and 1938, Maar and Picasso spent the summers in the South of France with various friends, where Maar took photographs of Picasso on the beach. Back in Paris, Maar invited Picasso to her studio to photograph his portrait and, in return, allowed him to paint her, which he did many times throughout their decade long relationship.

Picasso encouraged Maar to paint alongside her photography career. Adopting his style, Maar produced a portrait of Picasso, displacing the facial features and adding elements of cubism. Viewers could be forgiven for mistaking many of Maar’s works as Picasso’s since she often replicated his methods.

The Conversation, painted in 1937, addresses Maar’s feelings about Picasso’s ongoing relationship with Marie-Thérèse Walter (1909-77) with whom he had a daughter Maya. Despite openly being a couple with Maar, Picasso refused to break off his relationship with Walter and made them both fight for his love. It is also known that Picasso physically abused Maar and used her as a living depiction of pain and suffering in his portraits.

In 1937, Picasso was commissioned by the Spanish Republican government to create a mural for the Spanish pavilion at the 1937 Paris World’s Fair. Initially, he spent a few months half-heartedly painting in his studio, however, after the bombing of Guernica on 26th April, he was inspired to make the violence and chaos of that event of the Spanish Civil War the subject of the painting.

From 11th May to 4th June, Maar documented Picasso’ progress through photographs as he tackled the large canvas in his studio. The photographs were commissioned by the art journal Cahiers d’art who wanted to “preserve the metamorphosis of a picture”. It has been suggested Maar’s presence in the studio may have influenced the artwork. Picasso included the silhouette of an electric light, which historians have speculated was inspired by the light Maar used to illuminate the canvas for her photographs.

In an interview recorded in 1990, Maar revealed that she had helped paint small parts of Guernica so that there would be significant progress in her next photograph. She also revealed one of the female figures in the composition was intended to be her.

Not long after Guernica was completed, Picasso painted Maar as the Weeping Woman. He produced over thirty studies of Maar in this guise but Maar believed it was never intended to be a portrait. It was her belief that it was another of Picasso’s metaphors for the suffering during the Spanish War.

In 1942, Maar bought a new studio in Paris where she focused on painting rather than photography. Picasso continued to encourage her to paint in the cubist style, which is evident in some of her still life paintings. Some of her still lifes were exhibited at Galerie Jeanne Bucher, Paris in 1944. As their relationship began to break down, however, Maar’s artwork began to take a new direction. Inspired by the river Seine, which was a stone’s throw from her home, she began to focus on landscapes.

Life during the early 1940s was not kind to Maar. Firstly, she was subjected to an abusive relationship, which coincided with her father returning to Argentina. After Maar left Picasso, she had to face the sudden deaths of her mother and close friend, Nusch Éluard. It is no wonder she spent some time in Saint Mandé, a psychiatric hospital, presumably being treated for depression. Fortunately, she was able to recover and focus on her painting, including a self-portrait that she gave to Doctor Baron, a specialist in neuro-ophthalmology.

“These landscapes, the result of [Maar’s] recent change of style, are marked by a sensitive and very individual talent … vastness, loneliness and, above all, their sense of place.”
– John Russell, The Times

Maar’s change in artistic style was noticed by art critics at the London Leicester Galleries in 1958. Whilst they are landscapes made up of washes of paint, critics remarked on the sense of isolation and overwhelming vastness, which indicated Maar’s feelings of loneliness and unhappiness after the loss of her lover, her parents and her friends.

Nonetheless, Maar was able to work through her negative feelings and continued producing art. During the latter 1940s, Maar spent half her time in Paris and the other half in Ménerbes in the south of France. She developed a friendship with the French poet André du Bouchet (1924-2001) who offered her the opportunity to collaborate on some work. In 1956, Maar supplied a set of engravings for his anthology Mountain Soil, which involved developing a new technique and art style.

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At heart, Maar was always a photographer, however, she lost interest in documenting the outside world. She no longer found exploring the city streets interesting and preferred to stay within the shadows of her darkroom. By the 1980s, Maar was virtually cameraless, having discovered the excitement of producing photograms. This involved laying household objects onto photo-sensitive paper, which when exposed to the light, left the covered sections white. Where the light directly hit the paper, it darkened.

Dora Maar continued working until her death on 16th July 1997 at the age of 89. She spent her final years living in an apartment in Rue de Savoie in Paris. Maar was never famous for her paintings during her lifetime and it has only been since her death that they have been studied in more detail. Whilst she is known better as a photographer, she is still predominantly regarded as the mistress of Picasso. Their relationship only lasted a decade but it has overshadowed her entire career. Hopefully, exhibitions such as this one at Tate Modern will allow her to be appreciated as an artist.

Dora Maar is on display at Tate Modern until 15th March 2020. Tickets cost £13 for adults and £5 for teens. Under 12s may visit for free, although some exhibits contain nudity.