Kathryn Lawes: Creative Box

Ambitious graphic designer and illustrator, Kathryn Lawes, like many young artists, dreams of having her own design company. However, it is a competitive world, and starting small is the only way to go. Having earned a degree in Graphic Design after three years of study at Portsmouth University, Kathryn has proven her desire to create by taking on the odd commission brief.

When starting up as a freelancer, it is very difficult to earn enough money to live on, therefore ex-students often end up in dead-end jobs whilst they try to get themselves known in the world of their desired profession. Kathryn, however, has been particularly lucky in landing herself a job at an architecture company, Thrive Architects. This may not involve the style of design and illustration she ultimately wants to be working on, but it provides the opportunity to develop her skills. And, at the end of the day, it is the vital experience that graphic design companies or prospective clients are on the lookout for.

D17474745_10154646198504387_67877695_nuring the limited spare time available, Kathryn also takes on freelance commissions. She has worked on branding jobs, produced children’s picture books, and has also branched out into mural painting. But, the thing she enjoys most is drawing and illustration. As a child, Kathryn was asked what she wanted to be when she grew up, and she said “an illustrator”! And, now it appears her childhood ambition could actually turn into a reality.

“I love to bring a story to life,” Kathryn explains. Using mainly watercolours and pen, Kathryn’s illustrations lend themselves towards children, the soft colours and smoothness of the final outcomes being particularly attractive to young minds. With already one in print, Kathryn is currently working on a second book based on the Six Behaviour Strands used by the client, the Primary Behaviour Service (PBS). Rather than focusing on National Curriculum subjects such as Maths, English and Science, PBS concentrates on six areas: Focus, Independence, Resilience, Respect, Boundaries and Self-Regulation.

The first book in the PBS series is titled It’s Just Too Noisy, and teaches children about how to focus. Using her favoured illustration style, Kathryn introduces Barney, a rabbit who wants to relax and read his book. However, each time Barney settles down to read, he is distracted by loud noises. Unlike traditional stories, It’s Just Too Noisy invites children to engage with the story and its conclusion by deciding what Barney should do next. A choice of two actions leads to contrasting scenarios, thus educating children about the more appropriate ways of reacting in difficult situations.

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Kathryn’s love of children’s illustration stems from her own childhood.

My biggest inspirations are my Mum and Walt Disney. When I was little, my Mum would use up old tiny pots of paint by painting on my furniture various characters from Disney films. I remember having a big white toy box with some of the puppies from 101 Dalmations on, which I loved! I have always loved the Disney hand-drawn style animation illustrations, and I guess this is what fueled my desire to draw as well.

Alongside her decorated furniture, Kathryn’s strongest art-related memory is winning a design competition whilst at Primary school. The task was to create an advert and logo to promote Walk to School week, and Kathryn’s illustration of a book bag with legs landed her with first prize. Embedded in her memory is the day the Mayor of Havering personally congratulated her on her winning entry. “… a huge car with little flags at the front pulled up … a very important man got out of the car and then he came and told me how brilliant my work was! ”

83As an illustrator, Kathryn does not only concentrate on child-targetted artwork. One of her favourite pieces of work to date is an illustration of a classic racing car. Inspired by the vehicles on display at Santa Pod Raceway, Kathryn has created a small series of vehicle illustrations, including a few as commissions. However, it is her first attempt at this new genre that Kathryn is most proud of.

Taking her illustration skills to new levels, Kathryn has recently added mural design to her repertoire, charging reasonable prices for beautiful wall art. Like any professional designer, Kathryn liaises with the client to make sure the outcome is exactly what they want but also employs her artistic eye to suggest the best method of achieving their wishes.

Thanks to her childhood fascination with Disney films, Kathryn is expert at replicating the original Disney characters and has often incorporated these into wall murals. Whilst cartoons are popular for children’s bedrooms, Kathryn is also skilled in typography, and faultlessly applies words or quotes to the layout. Details, including prices, can be found on Kathryn’s Creative Box website.

Kathryn’s dream is to have all six books in the PBS series published and to continue working in the graphic design field. As with all students and graduates, Kathryn has experienced ups and downs, competing against other designers as well as her own confidence. Yet, experience leads to knowledge, and Kathryn leaves us with some sound advice: “Keep Going. Honestly, the best advice is if you keep pursuing and persevering … you are much more likely to reach [your goals]. Never give up … you will never find out what potential you had.”

Kathryn’s portfolio can be found on Creative Box as well as her personal blog. She is also on Facebook and Tumblr.

 

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Pop the American Dream

 

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Jasper Johns (b1930) Flags I

 

The past 60 years have seen significant changes in the United States of America. As the country became more industrialised, upsetting many workers and families, people began to reject the past government methods and ideals, in response to the changing times. Although sometimes resulting in adverse outcomes, for example, assassinations, citizens passionately expressed their views on the changing times, highlighting racism, homophobia, AIDS and other crises.

Although often open to interpretation, artwork can provide a more accurate representation of past events than written accounts, which may omit truths and lack evidence. The Great Depression of the 1930s prompted the beginning of a new wave of art, now known as Abstract Expressionism, which expressed the artists’ opinions far more greatly than landscapes and portraits that only depicted what the eye could see.

The development of technology meant that the tools available to artists increased, thus a new art movement exploded onto the scene. Pop Art is a term that encompasses works of many famous American artists, such as Andy Warhol, Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg, who, with the help of technological advancement, experimented with printmaking and bold, vibrant colours.

The British Museum in London is currently displaying examples of Pop Art in their exhibition The American Dream: pop to the present (until 18th June 2017). Amongst the assorted works is the notable Marilyn Diptych by the aforementioned Warhol, which despite being recognised by the majority, is not usually easy to view in person.

Coined in the late 1950s by art critic Lawrence Alloway, Pop Art is the term used to describe the artwork and imagery based on consumerism and popular culture. Artists appropriated iconography from comic books, advertisements, television and film in their artworks and designs, thus appealing to the common people rather than the highbrow interests of the upper classes.

As an expansion of Abstract Expressionism, this latest movement rejected the theories and seriousness of art and welcomed the new methods and machines that allowed artists to reproduce imagery of everyday items. Examples of this new way of production can be seen in Jasper Johns paintings of flags, numbers and beer cans. Robert Rauschenberg took this one step further, employing collage to demonstrate a range of subject matter.

Eventually, even the use of painting was rejected in preference of commercial techniques, for example, screen-printing, which Warhol is famous for utilising. Video demonstrations can be viewed at the British Museum of the screen-printing process. In fact, it shows Warhol producing one of his numerous works, applying stencils and paint to produce the shapes and imagery he intended.

By using commercial techniques, Pop Art, unlike previous art movements, was quick and easy to produce, making it a suitable method of expressing the views and wants of the people of America. As food, motor vehicles and sex became commodities in the eye of the public, artists were swift to encompass these themes in their work. As a result, these contemporary methods and styles were the go to media to produce banners, posters and such forth to demonstrate views on black civil rights, homosexuality, the AIDs crisis, war in Vietnam and so forth.

Britain was also influenced by the growing popularity of Pop Art, particularly inspiring artists such as David Hockney and Richard Hamilton. Hamilton expressed the style as “popular, transient, expendable, low-cost, mass-produced, young, witty, sexy, gimmicky, glamorous and Big Business.” Despite his overindulgence of adjectives, Hamilton is certainly correct about its popularity, no doubt enhanced by the easy and lack of cost to mass-produce the artwork. Unlike other art movements, which start off small before eventually being recognised, Pop Art was a success on a material level, appealing to both the public and collectors.

Naturally, there were critics who retained an unfavourable opinion of the flamboyant movement. Harold Rosenberg, an American writer, deemed Pop Art “a joke without humour, told over and over again until it begins to sound like a threat.” Noting the use of commercial technology, Rosenberg expanded his opinion, stating that it was like “Advertising art which advertises itself as art that hates advertising.”

Despite the contrasting opinions, Pop Art certainly had its uses, as demonstrated in the British Museum’s exhibition. Examples of posters and artwork featuring the typical style are shown alongside videos and explanations of the growing unrest, boycotts and protests occurring throughout the 60s and 70s in America. However, the original intention of Pop Art remains ambiguous. Certainly, it benefitted the expression of political discord, but was the movement created with that in mind?

The initial rooms within the exhibition The American Dream appear to be more experimental than purposeful. With technological developments happening around them, artists appeared to be thinking “what happens if I do this?” rather than “I am doing this because …” Experimentation with various methods of printmaking provided artists with the opportunity to learn and discover new techniques and apply. Take, for example, Jim Dirie’s paintbrush etchings (c1970s), of which he did several. There is no message, such as with the majority of Pop Art, yet he has used one of the developing methods of the time. The fact that Dirie produced so many of the same object, implies he was searching for a style and effect he was happy with aesthetically, rather than attempting to communicate anything to the audience.

Robert Longo is another artist featured in the exhibition who appears to have used typical Pop Art techniques as a method of producing art, rather than conforming to the commercial and demonstrative scene. Famed for his hyper-realistic charcoal drawings, Longo has produced numerous illustrations of the same figures (Eric and Cindy) in various expressive dance poses. Firstly by staging photo shoots, Longo copies the figures onto paper to produce life-size representations. Although charcoal is his primary medium, the version of Eric and Cindy presented in the exhibition is created using lithography, a technique often applied in the commercial printing industry (pre the computer-age).

Lithography involves drawing (usually in wax) onto a stone slab or other suitable material. With the application of chemicals and ink, a print of the drawing can then be transferred to paper. This method provides the opportunity to create several copies of the artwork, rather than painstakingly sketching each one from scratch. Longo, an exhibiting visual artist, most likely employed this technique in order to benefit himself, rather than as a contribution to the movement.

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As the exhibition progresses, the artwork becomes more functional, particular in terms of politics. Pop Art was an expressive means of getting opinions across to a wide audience, in particular, members of the general public who may be interested in the pop culture references. Displayed in chronological order, enabling viewers to witness the progression of the movement, the artwork covers all the major events that occurred in America from the 1960s onwards.

Although visual methods of propaganda had already been used before, Pop Art was probably the first opportunity the general populace had to communicate their beliefs and attitudes. This is something that is still employed today, for example during public marches and demonstrations, or in the form of guerrilla advertising.

The Pop Art aesthetic may not appeal to all, but it reveals so much more than an artist’s skill. The movement has altered the way society can involve itself in matters where they have previously been forced into silence. It is not merely an art movement, it is a form of widespread expression. Without it, many people may not have the rights they take for granted today.

Only a month remains of the exhibition, so if you wish to view the collection of American Pop Art, you need to get yourself to the British Museum as soon as possible. As a bonus, under 16s can get in for free!

 

 

The Art of Money

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As of 13th September 2016, the Bank of England issued its first ever polymer note. The £5 note is the first to be printed on this thin, flexible material, and, although smaller in size, is considerably more durable than its paper predecessor. They are also a lot harder to counterfeit.

Until the new note was released, I had not thought about the actual appearance of our money. Apart from displaying the Queen’s head and being different colours depending on quantity, the rest of the design felt insignificant. However, there is a lot of thought put into the composition of our banknotes.

The Bank of England Museum in London currently exhibits a Banknote Gallery, containing all the note styles and designs from 1694, when paper money came into existence, right up until the latest polymer version. Following the timeline of notes throughout history reveals the development of the visual appearance and the increasing intricacy of their design.

The museum provides information about the new fiver, how it was made, and explains the reasons for the choice of design. Including the current £10, £20 and the £50 note in their display, they also interpret the varying features many people may not have noticed. Our money is a lot more interesting to look at than we think.

The New £5

As most people in the UK will know, the paper £5 note featured the portrait of Queen Elizabeth II on one side, and Elizabeth Fry, an English pioneering Quaker from the Victorian-era, on the reverse. Although the Queen’s image remains the same, the historical character has been changed. The polymer note presents the face of one of the most famous Prime Ministers of the past; Winston Churchill.

Incorporating the 1941 photograph of Sir Winston Churchill taken by Yousuf Karsh, the bank has decided to celebrate the life of the British statesman who had a significant role in the UK’s modern history. Churchill was Prime Minister during two significantly life-altering events. The first occasion (1940-1945), were also the years of the Second World War, meaning Churchill had a lot of important decisions to make, and a country relying on him to protect them from the hostile Nazis. His second term ran from 1951 until 1955 and contained a much happier event – the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II.

Knowing the historical significance of Sir Winston Churchill makes the rest of the design more meaningful. Below Churchill’s portrait is a phrase that he is famous for saying during his first term as Prime Minister: “I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat.” This came from his first speech in the House of Commons after taking up his new position. Of his three famous speeches, this line is one that is remembered most.

To Churchill’s right-hand side on the polymer note, is an illustration of the Houses of Parliament. The relevance is obvious since, due to his role, Churchill spent a lot of time here. But behind the building is a symbol that some may not recognise. As well as a statesman, Churchill was an artist and writer as well, and in 1953 he won the prestigious Nobel Prize for Literature. This mysterious symbol on the back of the £5 note is, in fact, a sketch of the Nobel medal.

The final design connection to Churchill, and displayed on a circular, green foil patch – another method of limiting fake copies – is the word “BLENHEIM”. Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire was the family home and place of birth of Winston Churchill. The name today is still largely associated with the former Prime Minister.

On the other side, the side considered the front of the note, is the same portrait of the Queen that featured on the paper version. But what really differentiates the new from the old, other than the material, is the see-through window on the left-hand side of the note. This hallmark will make it a lot harder to counterfeit, especially as the window contains a finely detailed metallic image of the Elizabeth Tower. When viewed from the front, the tower appears to be gold, however, on the reverse, it shines silver.

£10, £20, and £50

The Bank of England proposes to reproduce the £10 and £20 note in the same polymer material but has yet to decide whether to manufacture the more recent £50 in this manner. This summer (2017) is the intended season to begin issuing the polymer £10, however, the polymer £20 will not come into circulation until 2020.

These new notes give the nation the opportunity to honour other historical figures. Jane Austen is set to appear on the £10 note and J.M.W. Turner will take pride of place on the £20. In the meantime, Charles Darwin and Adam Smith continue to star on the British paper notes.

Since the design change of the £5 has brought attention to the relevance of the background illustrations, it has increased the awareness of detail on the notes that have been in circulation for years. Looking closely at the £20 note, the design begins to make sense. Adam Smith’s portrait stares forward at an illustration of a pin factory. This is something Smith used to describe the benefits of the division of labour in his book An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. The £10 note, on the other hand, contains a combination of images. Since Charles Darwin was a naturalist, flora, fauna and a nautilus shell are used to represent the species he discovered whilst travelling the world aboard the ship HMS Beagle (also features in the illustration). Other elements are made up of a compass and magnifying glass.

Matthew Boulton, the face of the £50 note, was a manufacturer and business partner of James Watt, a famous Scottish engineer. They were both involved with the Industrial Revolution, which had a serious impact on Britain, thus making them significant people to remember. To illustrate Boulton’s role, images of a factory, cogs and wheels, and the Whitbread Steam Engine, adorn the background of the note.

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However, the inclusion of portraits on British money is only a recent idea. When the first Bank of England notes were issued, they were handwritten, denoting the amount they were worth. This is presumably where the idea of cheques developed from. Eventually, the notes were printed by machine, but it was not until the 20th century that colour and calligraphic design began to appear.

The only monarch to feature on British paper money is the current queen, Queen Elizabeth II. Her portrait was first used in 1960, seven years after her coronation. Notes have since been gradually updated throughout the Queen’s life in order to keep the portrait up-to-date.

For a decade, Queen Elizabeth II was the only person – discounting Britannia who has been on every note from the very start – to feature on British notes. The 1970s brought about the commencement of historical character designs, beginning with William Shakespeare on the £20.

Since then, numerous famous people have been displayed on notes of all values. The £5 note has been home to the portraits of the Duke of Wellington (1971), George Stephenson (1990) and Elizabeth Fry (2002). The £10 note featured Florence Nightingale (1975), Charles Dickens (1991) and Charles Darwin (2000). The £20: Shakespeare (1970), Michael Faraday (1991), Sir Edward Elgar (1999), and, as already mentioned, Adam Smith (2007). Other people to have been used are Sir Isaac Newton (£1, 1975), Sir Christopher Wren (£50, 1981), and Sir John Houblon (£50, 1994).

The notes all have security features to determine whether they are real, for instance, the watermark of the Queen that only appears when held up to a light. What many people do not realise, the way of being sure whether the money is real or fake, is a hidden number that cannot be seen by the naked eye. To see these numbers, an ultra-violet light is needed to reveal the red and green fluorescent ink on the front (Queen side) of the note.

The Bank of England Museum has an ultra-violet light for visitors to test their own money with. The special dye has been used on all notes produced by the bank, so if no hidden number lights up, you are in trouble!

To see the changes in note design from the 1700s until the present day, the Bank of England Museum has a timeline of the changes on display for everyone to see. It is interesting to discover how different the old money looks, yet also how similar the design is too. Coins are also exhibited, which go back further than the present Queen, to feature the heads of previous monarchs.

As well as bank notes, the museum also focuses on the history of the Bank of England, for example, the early years, 1694-1800; the Rotunda, 1800-1946; and the modern economy, 1946 until the present day. There are many hands-on activities for children (and adults) to play with, from jigsaw puzzles to interactive screens. And, most importantly, do not forget to (attempt) to pick up the genuine gold bar!

The Bank of England Museum is located on Bartholomew Lane, London, EC2R 8AH, and is free entry to all visitors.

The Wallace Collection and What We Find There

Now a national museum, The Wallace Collection was once a fashionable London residence built for the 4th Duke of Manchester in the late 1700s. It was later inhabited by the first four Marquesses of Hertford – thus renamed Hertford House – until being purchased by Sir Richard Wallace, the 4th Marquess’s illegitimate son, in 1871. Richard Wallace, along with his father, are the collectors responsible for the majority of the artworks on show.

Opened as a museum in 1900, The Wallace Collection is an art gallery displayed in a domestic setting, providing insight into the lives of Sir Richard and Lady Wallace, whilst captivating visitors with hundreds of treasures. Amongst the collection are outstanding 18th century French paintings, medieval artworks, ceramics and an exceptional array of armour – the largest in Britain.

Unlike the crowded art galleries in cities throughout the world, The Wallace Collection is a peaceful, quiet building, with enough freedom to view the artworks at a leisurely pace. Yet, being so extensive, it is difficult to appreciate each and every painting, sculpture and artefact without spending hours there, or even days. Therefore, a plan of action needs to be taken. What important artworks should visitors be on the lookout for?

Hertford House is decked out with artwork in every room, regardless of its original function. Therefore, it is impossible to miss the sculpted busts on the left when entering the Entrance Hall. Sculptures are dotted around various rooms from different time periods, but those in this first room include the posthumous bust Charles I, King of England by the impressive Louis François Roubiliac.

Portraits are in abundance, whether of real people, fictional or imagined. On the ground floor, a particular one to note is the portrait of Queen Victoria painted by Thomas Sully in 1838, a year after she ascended the throne. Most have an inkling as to how Queen Victoria looked (typically the large woman shown in the photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882), however this particular painting shows the young Queen at the height of her youth.

The other portrait to look out for on the bottom storey can be found in The Billiard Room, which overlooks the restaurant in the courtyard. Woman Looking at her Mirror by Jean Raoux, is exactly as the title suggests. Painted toward the beginning of the 18th century, it encompasses ideas from Netherlandish and Venetian art, which was becoming of interest to the French painters at that time. The anonymous woman stands out from the dark background, but what is most striking is the reflection of the mirror on her body. The viewer cannot see the glass of the mirror, however Raoux has expertly captured the effect of the light being thrown back to accentuate the model’s features.

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The Swing, Fragonard (1767)

The upper rooms of the house are where the more famous and impressive paintings can be found. Portraits are also displayed here, including Madame de Pompadour by François Boucher. Alongside Boucher’s art work are those of his pupil, Jean-Honoré Fragonard, which can be found in the Oval Drawing Room as well as the Landing at the top of the grand staircase. Amongst this collection is Fragonard’s most famous painting, The Swing (1767).

According the The Wallace Collection Guidebook, one critic expressed “the grace of it’s execution and the tact of the artist excuse the sauciness of the subject”. What is depicted is the suggestion of adultery, with the ladies husband pushing her on a swing, and her lover hiding amongst the bushes and looking up her skirt. The coquetry is intensified by the inclusion of Madame’s slipper coming loose and flying through the air. Despite the indecency of its risqué subject, The Swing is pleasing to look at as a result of its delicate colours and dreamy setting.

Another artist the original owners of Hertford House favoured was Canaletto (Antonio Canale), who has almost an entire room dedicated to him. Canaletto was an 18th century Venetian painter who specialised in detailed landscapes of his home city. The majority of Canaletto’s works were done at the request of tourists who wished to take home visual memories of their trip to Venice (naturally cameras were not around), and it was on a trip to Venice when the 1st Marquess of Hertford acquired these paintings.

Presumably, since it was the 1st Marquess that bought them, these Canaletto artworks are some the the earliest paintings the family purchased. It is not surprising that the Marquess found them so irresistible, when the attention to detail is taken into account. Canaletto excelled at depicting buildings and canals of Venice, painstakingly illustrating every brick and ripple of water.

The East and West Galleries contain an assortment of paintings and small sculptures by various artists, and are generally displayed in some sense of chronological order. Grouped together are French and British painters from the early 1800s, artwork from the Napoleonic era, and 17th century Dutch paintings, including those by Rembrandt van Rijn.

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Great Gallery

Both East and West Galleries lead visitors to the most resplendent room of the house, the Great Gallery. This room was not part of the original house, but was added during the 1870s so Sir Richard Wallace could hang the most important part of his family’s collection. Naturally, this is where the most famous paintings can be found (so if time restricted, this is a room not to be missed).

There is no logical sequence to the artwork depicted here in the Great Gallery, resulting in an amalgamation of portraits, religious scenes and mythological stories. Significant artists located here range from Rembrandt and Rubens to Velázquez and other 17th century contemporaries.

Particular highlights include The Laughing Cavalier (1624) by Frans Hals, The Persian Sybil (c.1620) by Domenichino, The Annunciation (c.1640-50) – Phillippe de Champaigne, and Bartolomé Estebán Murillo’s The Adoration of the Shepherds. It is in this gallery that the majority of the religious imagery is located, mostly focused on Jesus’ birth and childhood.

The religious paintings are somewhat ironically displayed alongside the scenes from Greek/Roman mythology. The latter are a striking contrast to the humble, peaceful biblical narratives, focusing on the more violent parts of the stories. One scene from Ovid’s Metamorphoses is shown by two different artists. Titian’s Perseus and Andromeda (1553-62) depicting the slaying of a sea dragon, is markedly different from the painting of the same name by François Lemoyne in 1723. It is interesting to note the differentiation between the two styles and observe the change in techniques and influences between the two centuries.

The Wallace Collection is not solely for those interested in art, but also for those with an enthusiasm for armour, swords and other weapons. Located on the ground floor at the back of the courtyard, are several rooms full of armour and arms ranging from Medieval and Renaissance eras to the Napoleonic era up until the end of the 19th century. Originally a coach house and stable yard, this section of the gallery has been converted in order to display one of the largest treasuries of early firearms in Britain.

Whether you are planning a lengthy visit, or are enticed by the thought of a cup of tea in the stylish restaurant, The Wallace Collection is certainly worth a visit. Although the collection does not contain the masterpieces that a larger, more well-known gallery may display, it definitely has artworks of fame and significance. The added bonus of the domestic setting makes the viewing appreciably more relaxed and enjoyable.

Not much is explained about the individual artworks around the collection, however the gift shop supplies a reasonably priced guidebook containing a concise explanation about the history of the house, as well as details about a handful of paintings, sculptures, ceramics and armour. It may be of more worth to purchase this before beginning to tour the galleries.


I recently went to The Wallace Collection and can highly recommend a visit. However, it may not be suitable for very young children. Whilst looking at a figurine (pictured below) a young boy asked “Why does he have a spare head?”

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